Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History



  • Sphaera Mundi [with other tracts]: Sphaera cum Theorcis Disputationibus Johannis Regiomontani contra Cremonensium Deliramenta Theoricas: Signatures 11v and 22
    Authors: Johannes de Sacrobosco (John Holybush, died 1256); Regiomontanus (Johannes Müller of Königsberg, 1436–1476); Georg von Peuerbach (1423–1461)
    [Venice:] Erhard Ratdolt, 1485
    Printed books with woodcut illustrations printed in one, two, and three colors of ink; 7 5/8 x 5 3/8 x 1/2 in. (19.4 x 13.6 x 1.2 cm)
    Gift of Paul J. Sachs, 1917 (17.45)

    The publisher and printer Erhard Ratdolt left his native Augsburg in 1475 and by the following year was at work in Venice, where his publications were among the most inventive to come from the press. In his Kalendarium of 1476, with its lovely woodcut border, Ratdolt introduced the first decorative title page in a printed book. At a time when most publishers left blank spaces for initial letters to be added by hand, he introduced a series of ornamental woodcut initials, examples of which can be seen on the pages shown here.

    Ratdolt had a particular interest in astronomy and mathematical science, using printed images to further elucidate these subjects. The Kalendarium, based on the studies of the astronomer Johannes Müller of Königsberg (known as Regiomontanus), included ten pages of eclipses, with the illuminated portion handcolored in yellow. His Euclid of 1482 included geometrical diagrams ingeniously set into the margins of the text. The astronomical treatise shown here was the first book to include an illustration printed in three colors of ink. The first part of this publication deals with the treatise on the sphere by the thirteenth-century British astronomer John Holybush (Sacrobosco in Italian).

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  • Sphaera Mundi [with other tracts]: Sphaera cum Theorcis Disputationibus Johannis Regiomontani contra Cremonensium Deliramenta Theoricas: Signatures 11v and 22
    Authors: Johannes de Sacrobosco (John Holybush, died 1256); Regiomontanus (Johannes Müller of Königsberg, 1436–1476); Georg von Peuerbach (1423–1461)
    [Venice:] Erhard Ratdolt, 1485
    Printed books with woodcut illustrations printed in one, two, and three colors of ink; 7 5/8 x 5 3/8 x 1/2 in. (19.4 x 13.6 x 1.2 cm)
    Gift of Paul J. Sachs, 1917 (17.45)

    Sphaera Mundi [with other tracts]: Sphaera cum Theorcis Disputationibus Johannis Regiomontani contra Cremonensium Deliramenta Theoricas: Signatures 32v and 33
    Authors: Johannes de Sacrobosco (John Holybush, died 1256); Regiomontanus (Johannes Müller of Königsberg, 1436–1476); Georg von Peuerbach (1423–1461)
    [Venice:] Erhard Ratdolt, 1485
    Printed books with woodcut illustrations printed in one, two, and three colors of ink

    7 5/8 x 5 3/8 x 1/2 in. (19.4 x 13.6 x 1.2 cm)
    Gift of Paul J. Sachs, 1917 (17.45)

    In this publication, Ratdolt combined Sacrobosco's treatise on the sphere with later texts, such as the Theoricæ novæ planetarum of Regiomontanus. It is in this latter section that the woodcuts printed in multiple colors appear. While the use of color was intended to clarify the astronomical diagrams, here, as in his other publications, Ratdolt demonstrated his ability to combi

    Sphaera Mundi [with other tracts]: Sphaera cum Theorcis Disputationibus Johannis Regiomontani contra Cremonensium Deliramenta Theoricas: Signatures 53v and 54
    Authors: Johannes de Sacrobosco (John Holybush, died 1256); Regiomontanus (Johannes Müller of Königsberg, 1436–1476); Georg von Peuerbach (1423–1461)
    [Venice:] Erhard Ratdolt, 1485
    Printed books with woodcut illustrations printed in one, two, and three colors of ink

    7 5/8 x 5 3/8 x 1/2 in. (19.4 x 13.6 x 1.2 cm)
    Gift of Paul J. Sachs, 1917 (17.45)

    This diagram of a lunar eclipse in red, yellow, and black is the first book illustration to be printed in three colors.


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