Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History



  • Martyrdom of Saint Agatha in an Initial D: Cutting from an Antiphonary, ca. 1470–73
    Sano di Pietro (Ansano di Pietro di Mencio) (Italian, Sienese, 1405–1481)
    Tempera and gold leaf on parchment

    10 3/8 x 10 1/8 in. (26.3 x 25.7 cm)
    Robert Lehman Collection, 1975 (1975.1.2488)

    This miniature was originally included in an antiphonary volume illuminated by Sano di Pietro for the Hospital of Santa Maria della Scala in Siena. The scene inside the initial D illustrates one of the responses for the Feast of Saint Agatha (February 5): "Dum torqueretur beata Agatha in mamilla graviter dixit ad iudicem impie crudelis et dire tyranne" (While blessed Agatha was being cruelly tortured in her breasts, she said to the judge: godless, cruel, infamous tyrant).

    The Hospital choirbooks, written and decorated between 1456 and 1476/77, represent one of the largest and most prestigious manuscript commissions in fifteenth-century Siena. Sano di Pietro, who by the mid-fifteenth century was one of the principal painters and illuminators in Siena, was entrusted with the decoration of at least five of the twenty volumes in the series. The Lehman Saint Agatha is one of many initials and full leaves painted by his hand that were removed from these books and sold to collectors sometime during the nineteenth century, before transfer of the choirbooks to the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo.

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    Martyrdom of Saint Agatha in an Initial D: Cutting from an Antiphonary, ca. 1470–73
    Sano di Pietro (Ansano di Pietro di Mencio) (Italian, Sienese, 1405–1481)
    Tempera and gold leaf on parchment

    10 3/8 x 10 1/8 in. (26.3 x 25.7 cm)
    Robert Lehman Collection, 1975 (1975.1.2488)


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