Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History



  • Emperor Guan, Qing dynasty (1644–1911)
    Unidentified Artist (Chinese, ca. 1700)
    Hanging scroll; ink, color, and gold on silk; 68 1/8 x 36 7/16 in. (173 x 42.6 cm)
    Purchase, The B. Y. Lam Fund and Friends of Asian Art Gifts, in honor of Douglas Dillon, 2001 (2001.442)

    Guan Yu (died 219 A.D.), a warrior of the late Han dynasty (206 B.C.–220 A.D.) renowned for his valor and faithfulness, was later venerated as a saint in the Daoist pantheon. Elevated to the rank of emperor (di) by the Wanli emperor (r. 1573–1620) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), Guandi, as he was thenceforth known, served as a virtual patron saint of the Manchu rulers of the ensuing Qing dynasty, who erected numerous shrines in his honor throughout China. In this image, Emperor Guan is shown descending from the heavens with two attendants. He is identified by an inscription written in gold in the upper right: "Overseer of the Gate, Sage-Emperor Lord Guan."

    The painting, which comes from a set of religious images used in the "water and land" ritual—a Buddhist ceremony conducted for the salvation of "all the souls on land and sea"—is distinguished by its high level of craftsmanship, intricate detail, and lavish use of precious mineral pigments. An inscription at the lower right, "Respectfully commissioned by the imperial prince Zhuang," attests to the fact that the painting was the product of the imperial workshop. Judging from the style, it was probably commissioned by the first holder of that title, the powerful Manchu prince Boggodo (1650–1723), whose grandfather Abahai (1592–1643) was the Qing dynasty's founder.

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  • Emperor Guan, Qing dynasty (1644–1911)
    Unidentified Artist (Chinese, ca. 1700)
    Hanging scroll; ink, color, and gold on silk; 68 1/8 x 36 7/16 in. (173 x 42.6 cm)
    Purchase, The B. Y. Lam Fund and Friends of Asian Art Gifts, in honor of Douglas Dillon, 2001 (2001.442)

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