Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History



  • Initial A with the Battle of the Maccabees, ca. 1360–70
    Italy, probably Bologna
    Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment

    Gift of Bashford Dean, 1923 (23.21.4)

    Medieval Christians considered the Maccabees, who reestablished the Temple in Jerusalem for Jewish worship, as prototypes of the Christian Crusaders who fought to regain the holy city from Muslim control. This page illustrates a text from the Second Book of Maccabees, which would have been sung during worship in a monastery.

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    Initial A with the Battle of the Maccabees, ca. 1360–70
    Italy, probably Bologna
    Tempera, gold, and ink on parchment

    Gift of Bashford Dean, 1923 (23.21.4)


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