Harquebusier's Armor of Pedro II, King of Portugal (reigned 1683–1706) with Buff Coat
Armor attributed to Richard Holden (British, London, recorded 1658–1708)
Helmet cheek pieces and metal plates on shoulder straps made by Daniel Tachaux (French, 1857–1928, active in France and America)
ca. 1683 and later; buff coat, 17th–18th century
British, London; buff coat, European
Steel, gold, leather, textile
armor (15.113.1–.5): Wt. 43 lb. 5 oz. (19.6 kg); helmet: 14 x 11 x 15 1/4 in. (35.6 x 27.9 x 38.7 cm); Wt. 9 lb. 10 oz. (4354 g); breastplate: 18 1/2 x 16 5/16 x 7 13/16 in. (47 x 41.4 x 19.8 cm); Wt. 10 lb. 14 oz. (4944 g); backplate: 17 1/2 x 16 1/4 x 8 1/2 in. (44.5 x 41.3 x 21.6 cm); Wt. 11 lb. 5 oz. (5126 g); reinforcing breastplate: 17 3/8 x 16 3/16 x 6 13/16 in. (44.1 x 41.1 x 17.3 cm); Wt. 9 lb. 6 oz. (4264 g); bridle gauntlet: 5 1/2 x 19 7/16 x 6 3/4 in. (14 x 49.4 x 17.1 cm); Wt. 2 lb. 2 oz. (953 g); buff coat (29.158.885): L. 35 in. (88.9 cm)
Armor for Man
Armor: Rogers Fund, 1915; buff coat: Bashford Dean Memorial Collection, Funds from various donors, 1929
This armor can be identified by its decoration as having belonged to Pedro II (reigned 1683–1706). The decoration includes the crowned monogram PR for Pedro Rex (Pedro the King) and the cross of the commander of the Order of Christ, a hereditary office held by the kings of Portugal.
Harquebusiers were armored cavalrymen generally equipped with a carbine (known as a harquebus) carried at the right side on a shoulder belt, a pair of pistols holstered at the front of the saddle, and a sword. This form of armor, consisting of a triple-barred helmet, a cuirass with a bulletproof reinforcing breastplate, and an elbow gaunlet, was commonplace in England up to about 1645. The armor of King Pedro is significant not only as a very late example of this type but also as the probable work of the London armorer Richard Holden. A very similar armor made by Holden in 1686 for James II of England (reigned 1685–88) is in the Royal Armouries in the Tower of London.
The armor is shown with an associated buff coat. This sturdy leather defense, which provided effective protection against sword cuts, was worn throughout the seventeenth century, first in conjunction with armor and later alone.
Inscription: Inscribed on the helmet: a royal crown and interlaced letters P R; on the breastplate: P R.
Armor: Private Collection, Spain (?) (before 1912; sold to Harris); [Lionel Harris, London, by 1912–until 1915; sold to MMA].; Buffe coat: Bashford Dean, New York (until d. 1928; sold by his estate to MMA, 1929).
Allentown. Allentown Art Museum. "Arms and Armor: A Loan Exhibition from the Collection of Stephen V. Grancsay: with Important Contributions by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the John Woodman Higgins Armory, Worcester, Massachusetts," March 15–June 14, 1964, no. 7.
Lisbon. Torre de Belém. "XVII Exposição Europeia de Arte, Ciẽncia e Cultura. Os Descobrimentos Portugueses e a Europa do Renascimento. A mão que ao Ocidente o Véu Rasgou. Armaria dos Séculos XV a XVIII," May 7–October 2, 1983, no. 68.
Rome. Museo Nazionale di Castel Sant'Angelo. "Monaci in Armi," December 16, 2004–April 15, 2005, no. 22 p. 197.
Dean, Bashford. "Armor of Dom Pedro II, King of Portugal." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (January 1916), pp. 19–21, figs. 1–8.
Allentown Art Museum, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, and John Woodman Higgins Armory. Arms and Armor: A Loan Exhibition from the Collection of Stephen V. Grancsay: with Important Contributions by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the John Woodman Higgins Armory, Worcester, Massachusetts: March 15–June 14, 1964. Allentown, Pa.: Allentown Art Museum, March 15, 1964–June 14, 1964. pp. 20–21, no. 7, fig. 7.
Nickel, Helmut. "Orders of Chivalry." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (1973–74), p. 103, ill. (15.113.1–.5).
European Exhibition of Art, Science, and Culture. XVII Exposição Europeia De Arte, Ciência E Cultura: Os Descobrimentos Portugueses e a Europa Do Renascimento (XVII European Exhibition of Art, Science, and Culture: the Portuguese Discoveries and Renaissance Europe). Lisbon: Montepio Geral, 1984. no. 68.
La Rocca, Donald J. "An English Armor for the King of Portugal." Metropolitan Museum Journal (1995), pp. 81–96, figs. 1, 3–9, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21–22.
Cardini, Franco. Monaci in Armi: Gli Ordini Religioso-Militari Dai Templari Alla Battaglia Di Lepanto: Storia Ed Arte. Roma: Retablo, 2004. p. 197, no. 22, ill.
La Rocca, Donald J. How to Read European Armor. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2017. pp.25- 26, fig.27.
Artist: Made under the direction of Jacob Halder (British, master armorer at the royal workshops at Greenwich, documented in England 1558–1608) Date: 1586Medium: Steel, gold, leather, textileAccession: 32.130.6a–yOn view in:Gallery 371