This pen box is signed by the later Safavid artist Haji Muhammad. The Europeanized landscape depicted on the inside cover of this box is associated with the style of this artist and other members of his family, most famously his celebrated brother Muhammad Zaman. The high status accorded to the arts of calligraphy and writing in the Islamic world led to the production of many handsome accessories such as this pen box.
Signature: Haji Muhammad
[ Massoud Nader, New York, until 2000; sold to MMA]
New York. Leubsdorf Gallery at Hunter College. "Re-Orientations: Islamic Art and the West in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries," February 7, 2008–April 26, 2008, no catalogue.
Bates, Ülkü. Re-Orientations: Islamic Art and the West in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. New York, 2008. no. 15, pp. 62–63, ill.