The bird’s hooked beak signals that it is a bird of prey. It may be a falcon trained for the hunt. Falconry or hawking was enjoyed by the aristocracy, who generally hunted with trained predators. Practical manuals describing the breeding, training, and treatment of these highly prized birds are evidence of the sport’s popularity.
Blumka Gallery, New York (sold 1984)
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "One Hundred Fifteenth Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year July 1, 1984, through June 30, 1985." Annual Report of the Trustees of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 115 (1985). p. 43.
Evans, Helen C., and William D. Wixom, ed. The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A.D. 843–1261. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997. no. 187, p. 265.
Wixom, William D., ed. Mirror of the Medieval World. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. no. 106 C, pp. 90–91.
Evans, Helen C., Melanie Holcomb, and Robert Hallman. "The Arts of Byzantium." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 58, no. 4 (Spring 2001). p. 57.