Mummy of Khnumhotep with mask and broad collar, Human remains, linen, mummification material, painted and gilded cartonnage, ebony, obsidian, travertine (Egyptian alabaster), faience

Mummy of Khnumhotep with mask and broad collar

Period:
Middle Kingdom
Dynasty:
Dynasty 12
Date:
ca. 1981–1802 B.C.
Geography:
From Egypt, Middle Egypt, Khashaba excavations, 1910; Probably from Meir
Medium:
Human remains, linen, mummification material, painted and gilded cartonnage, ebony, obsidian, travertine (Egyptian alabaster), faience
Dimensions:
L. 174.7 cm (68 3/4 in.)
Credit Line:
Rogers Fund, 1912
Accession Number:
12.182.131c
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 112
Khnumhotep was an estate manager or steward during life, but both his mummy and coffin (see 12.182.131a, b) are designed to associate him with divinity and kingship in the afterlife. The elegant gold funerary mask on his mummy, still in its original condition, exhibits royal attributes such as the uraeus, transforming Khnumhotep’s body into an avatar of Osiris, king of the afterlife and god of resurrection.
Excavated at Meir by Ahmed Bey Kamal for Sayyid Pasha Khashaba. Acquired by Khashaba in the division of finds. Purchased from Khashaba by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1912.

Hayes, William C. 1953. Scepter of Egypt I: A Background for the Study of the Egyptian Antiquities in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: From the Earliest Times to the End of the Middle Kingdom. Cambridge, Mass.: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 310, 316, fig. 201.

Metropolitan Museum of Art 1962. Guide to the Collections, 3. New York, p. 23, fig. 27.

Dorman, Peter F., Prudence Harper, and Holly Pittman 1987. Egypt and the Ancient Near East in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 35-37.

Thompson, Randall C., Adel H. Allam, Guido P. Lombardi, L. Samuel Wann, M. Linda Sutherland, James D. Sutherland, Muhammad Al-Tohamy Soliman, Bruno Frohlich, David Mininberg, Janet M. Monge, Clide M. Vallodolid, Samantha L. Cox, Gomaa Abd el-Maksoud, Ibrahim Badr, Michael I. Miyamoto, Abd el-Halim Nur el-din, Jagat Narula, Caleb E. Finch, and Gregory S. Thomas 2013. "Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations." In The Lancet, March 10, p. 3.

Allen, James P. 2015. "Coffin and Mummy of the Estate manager Khnumhotep." In Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, edited by Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold, and Kei Yamamoto. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, pp. 233–34, no. 170.

Oppenheim, Adela 2015. "Introduction: What Was the Middle Kingdom?." In Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, edited by Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold, and Kei Yamamoto. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 8.

Quirke, Stephen 2015. "Understanding Death: A Journey between Worlds." In Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, edited by Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold, and Kei Yamamoto. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, p. 218, fig. 93.

Stünkel, Isabel 2015. "Royal Women: Ladies of the Two Lands." In Ancient Egypt Transformed: The Middle Kingdom, edited by Adela Oppenheim, Dorothea Arnold, Dieter Arnold, and Kei Yamamoto. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, n. 32.