By this period, Jews spoke and often wrote in Arabic, but only the Qaraites, a group that advocated literalistic interpretation of scripture, transliterated the Bible into Arabic characters. This book of Exodus features Hebrew and Arabic vocalization signs in red and green ink, resembling contemporary Qur’ans.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition (7th–9th Century)," March 12, 2012–July 8, 2012.