Exhibitions/ Art Object

Trees at L'Estaque

Artist:
Georges Braque (French, Argenteuil 1882–1963 Paris)
Date:
L'Estaque, summer 1908
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
31 5/8 x 23 11/16 in. (80.3 x 60.2 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Promised Gift from the Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection
Rights and Reproduction:
© 2018 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Not on view
A November 1908 display of Braque’s work at Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler’s Parisian gallery is considered the first Cubist exhibition. The Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection contains two landscapes from this historic debut: The Terrace at the Hôtel Mistral (1907) and this work. Created one year apart, they chart Braque’s stylistic evolution toward a reverse perspectival space, wherein highly sculptural forms push outward rather than recede into depth. Light and shade are no longer used to model objects naturalistically. At far left is a cylinder that represents a tree trunk and behind it is a cube, which may indicate a rock or a building farther in the distance. Landscapes such as this one were misunderstood and criticized by Braque’s peers as being “full of little cubes,” leading to the use of the name “Cubism” for this new artistic approach.
Inscription: Signed (verso, lower center): G Braque
[signature now concealed by relining; visible through infrared examination]
probably Wilhelm Uhde, Paris (late 1908 or after; probably purchased from the artist or through Galerie Kahnweiler, Paris; probably sold to Kickert); [Conrad Kickert (Moderne Kunst Kring), Paris and Zandvoort, the Netherlands, in late 1911]; possibly J. F. Deene, Amsterdam (until ca. 1926; probably sold to Heyligers); Dr. Jan (Johan Constant) Heyligers, Paris (in or after 1926); Dr. Gottlieb Friedrich Reber, Lausanne (in 1930; probably sold to Adamidi Frasheri); Paul bey Adamidi Frasheri, Nice (in 1934–45; sold in 1945 to Cooper); Douglas Cooper, London (1945–d.1984; inv. no. 119, estate no. DC 136/265; his bequest to McCarty-Cooper); his partner and adopted son, William McCarty-Cooper, London (1984–86; sold in November 1986 to Lauder); Leonard A. Lauder, New York (from 1986)

Paris. Galerie Kahnweiler. "Exposition Georges Braque," November 9–28, 1908 , no. 4, 20, or 21 (as "Paysage") or no. 22 (as "Les grands arbres").

Amsterdam. Stedelijk Museum. "Moderne Kunst Kring: Internationale tentoonstelling van moderne kunst," October 6–November 5, 1911 , no. 29, 30, or 34 (as "Paysage").

Vienna. Künstlerhaus. "Die Kunst in unserer Zeit," March–May 1930, no. 1 (as "Waldlandschaft," 1909).

Frankfurt. Städelsche Kunstinstitut. "Vom Abbild zum Sinnbild: Ausstellung von Meisterwerken Moderner Malerei," June 3–July 3, 1931, no. 12 (as "Waldlandschaft").

Newcastle upon Tyne. Hatton Gallery, King's College in the University of Durham. "Paintings of the Twentieth Century from the Collection of Mr. Douglas Cooper," March–May 1949, no catalogue (checklist no. 2; as "Landscape at L'Estaque").

Aberdeen Art Gallery. "A Loan Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by Modern French Masters," May–June 1950, no. 1.

Edinburgh University. "A Loan Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by Modern French Masters," May 1950, no. 1 (as "Landscape at L’Estaque").

Edinburgh. Royal Scottish Academy. "G. Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings," August 18–September 15, 1956, no. 13.

London. Tate Gallery. "G. Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings," September 28–November 11, 1956, no. 13.

Munich. Haus der Kunst. "Georges Braque," October 18–December 15, 1963, no. 15.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "The Cubist Epoch," December 15, 1970–February 21, 1971, no. 15.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Cubist Epoch," April 9–June 7, 1971, no. 15.

London. Tate Gallery. "The Essential Cubism, 1907–1920: Braque, Picasso & their friends," April 27–July 10, 1983, extended to July 31, 1983, no. 4 (as "Big Trees at L’Estaque").

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism," September 24, 1989–January 16, 1990, unnumbered cat. (p. 102; as [August] 1908).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Fauve Landscape," February 19–May 5, 1991, extended to May 19, 1991, [not in cat.].

London. Royal Academy of Arts. "The Fauve Landscape," June 10–September 1, 1991.

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Picasso and Braque: After Cézanne," November 9, 1996–February 25, 1997, extended to March 2, 1997.

Paris. Grand Palais. "Georges Braque," September 18, 2013–January 6, 2014, no. 29.

Houston. Museum of Fine Arts. "Georges Braque: A Retrospective," February 13–May 11, 2014, no. 29.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection," October 20, 2014–February 16, 2015, no. 2.

Exposition Georges Braque. Exh. cat., Galerie Kahnweiler. Paris, 1908, unpaginated, no. 4, 20, 21 or 22.

Catalogus van de internationale tentoonstelling van moderne kunst. Exh. cat., Stedelijk Museum. Amsterdam, 1911, p. 8, no. 29, 30, or 34.

Willem Steenhof. "Tentoonstelling van de Moderne Kunstkring in het Sted. Museum I." De Amsterdammer Weekblad voor Nederland no. 1790 (October 15, 1911), p. 6, ill., as "Landschap," attributed to Pablo Picasso.

Willem Steenhof. "Tentoonstelling van de Moderne Kunstkring in het Sted. Museum II." De Amsterdammer Weekblad voor Nederland no. 1791 (October 22, 1911), p. 3.

Supplément du catalogue des tableaux, miniatures, pastels, dessins encadrés, etc. du Musée de l'Etat à Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 1914, p. 515, no. 602a, as "Paysage".

Catalogus der schilderijen [. . .] in het Rijks-Museum te Amsterdam. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum. Amsterdam, 1918, p. 363, no. 602a, as "Landschap".

"Les expositions à Paris et ailleurs." Cahiers d'Art 5 (1930), ill. p. 161 (installed in the exhibition "Die Kunst in unserer Zeit," Künstlerhaus, Vienna 1930).

Die Kunst in unserer Zeit. Exh. cat., Künstlerhaus. Vienna, 1930, p. 17, no. 1.

Vom Abbild zum Sinnbild: Ausstellung von Meisterwerken Moderner Malerei. Exh. cat., Städelsches Kunstinstitut. Frankfurt am Main, 1931, p. 17, no. 12.

George Isarlov. Georges Braque. Paris, 1932, p. 15, no. 38.

R. H. Wilenski. A Loan Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings by Modern French Masters. Exh. cat., Edinburgh University. London, 1950, unpaginated, no. 1.

John Richardson. "Au Château des cubistes." L'Oeil no. 4 (April 15, 1955), ill. p. 18.

Douglas Cooper. G. Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1956, p. 8.

G. Braque. Exh. cat., Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh. London, 1956, pp. 28–29, no. 13, pl. 3.

John Richardson. G. Braque. Milan, 1960, pp. 11–12, unpaginated (list of plates), pl. VIII.

John Richardson. G. Braque. Greenwich, Conn., 1961, pp. 11–12, unpaginated (list of plates), pl. 8.

Douglas Cooper. Georges Braque. Exh. cat., Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1963, pp. 33–34, no. 15, fig. 14.

François Mathey. L'arte moderna., Il Cubismo. Milan, 1967, p. 433, ill. p. 116.

Douglas Cooper. The Cubist Epoch. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum of Art. London, 1970, pp. 29, 276, no. 15, pl. 7.

Joop Joosten in Piet Mondrian, 1872–1944: Centennial Exhibition. Exh. cat., Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. New York, 1971, fig. 9 (installed in the exhibition of the Moderne Kunst Kring, Stedelijk, Amsterdam, 1911).

Marco Valsecchi and Massimo Carrà. L'opera completa di Braque dalla scomposizione cubista al recupero dell'oggetto, 1908–1929. Milan, 1971, p. 86, no. 26, ill. p. 87.

Pierre Descargues and Massimo Carrà. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Braque, 1908–1929. Paris, 1973, p. 86, no. 26, ill. p. 87.

Nicole Worms de Romilly and Jean Laude. [Catalogue de l'œuvre de Georges Braque]. Vol. [1], Le Cubisme, fin 1907–1914. [Paris], 1982, p. 260, no. 18, ill. p. 86.

Douglas Cooper and Gary Tinterow. The Essential Cubism: Braque, Picasso & their friends, 1907–1920. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1983, p. 42, no. 4, ill. p. 43.

Dennis Farr. "Quintessential Cubism: A New Look." Apollo 117 (June 1983), p. 508, pl. VII.

Simon Wilson. What is Cubism? Exh. brochure, Tate Gallery. London, 1983, p. 2, fig. 1.

William Rubin, ed. Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1989, ill. p. 102, (German ed., 1990, p. 329, revised dating as [early summer] 1908, fig. 40; French ed., 1990, and Spanish ed., 1991, p. 328, revised dating as [early summer] 1908, ill. p. 96).

Dorothy Kosinski. "G. F. Reber: Collector of Cubism." Burlington Magazine 133, no. 1061 (August 1991), pp. 521, 529, fig. 42.

Pepe Karmel. "Appendix 2: Notes on the Dating of Works." Picasso and Braque: A Symposium. Ed. Lynn Zelevansky. New York, 1992, p. 325, as early summer 1908.

Jan van Adrichem. "The Introduction of Modern Art in Holland, Picasso as pars pro toto, 1910-30." Simiolus: Netherlands Quarterly for the History of Art 21, no. 3 (1992), pp. 169, 185 n. 83, p. 186 n. 84, p. 188 n. 93, p. 189 n. 97, fig. 10 (as installed in the exhibition Moderne Kunst Kring: Internationale tentoonstelling van moderne kunst, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1911).

Isabelle Monod-Fontaine in L'Estaque: Naissance du paysage moderne, 1870–1910. Exh. cat., Musée Cantini. Marseille and Paris, 1994, p. 113, ill. no. 90.

Norman Mailer. Portrait of Picasso as a Young Man: An Interpretive Biography. New York, 1995, p. 289, pl. 12.

Peter Kropmanns and Uwe Fleckner. "Von Kontinentaler Bedeuteung: Gottlieb Friedrich Reber und Seine Sammlungen." Die Moderne und Ihre Sammler: Französische Kunst in Deutschem Privatbesitz vom Kaiserreich zur Weimarer Republik. Ed. Andrea Pophanken and Felix Billeter. Berlin, 2001, pp. 365, 367, fig. 79.

Elizabeth Cowling. Picasso: Style and Meaning. London, 2002, pp. 204–205, ill. no. 172.

Claude Frontisi in Georges Braque et le paysage: De l'Estaque à Varengeville, 1906–1963. Exh. cat., Musée Cantini, Marseille. Paris, 2006, p. 84, fig. 56.

Uwe Fleckner. Carl Einstein und sein Jahrhundert: Fragmente einer intellektuellen Biographie. Berlin, 2006, p. 316, fig. 199.

Georges Braque, 1882–1963. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Galeries nationales. Paris, 2013, pp. 48, 307, no. 29, ill.

Carol Vogel. "Billion-Dollar Cubist Gift to the Met." International Herald Tribune (April 11, 2013), p. 12, ill.

Carol Vogel. "$1 Billion Gift Gives Met a New Perspective (Cubist)." New York Times (April 10, 2013), p. A18, ill.

"Objects Promised to the Museum during the Year 2012–2013." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, One Hundred Forty-third Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013 (2013), p. 45.

Braque: L’expo. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Galeries nationales. Paris, 2013, p. 40, ill. p. 41.

Alison Gingeras in Carroll Dunham: Bathers Trees. Exh. cat., Gladstone Gallery. New York and Cologne, 2013, ill. p. 93.

Jack Flam in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 22–26, 302(1)n.6, no. 2, ill. p. 24 (color).

Anna Jozefacka and Luise Mahler in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 243–44, fig. 2 (installation photo, Exh. Amsterdam 1911).

Emily Braun and Leonard A. Lauder in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, p. 11.

Alan Hyman, ed. The Picasso Project: Picasso's Paintings, Watercolors, Drawings, and Sculpture, A Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue, 1885–1973., Analytic Cubism, 1909–1912. San Francisco, 2015, p. xliii.

"The Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection: A Conversation with Emily Braun and Pepe Karmel." IFAR Journal 16, no. 3 (2015), p. 41, fig. 15A (color).

Philip Segal. The Art of Fact Investigation: Creative Thinking in the Age of Information Overload. New York, 2016, n.p. and p. 18, ill. color p. 13, fig. 3, and detail ill. back cover.