Exhibitions/ Art Object

Woman in a Chemise in an Armchair

Artist:
Pablo Picasso (Spanish, Malaga 1881–1973 Mougins, France)
Date:
Paris, late 1913–early 1914
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
59 × 39 1/8 in. (149.9 × 99.4 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Promised Gift from the Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection
Rights and Reproduction:
© 2018 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Not on view
This painting is a masterpiece of Synthetic Cubism. Abstract planes in a range of tans and pinks are combined with acutely realistic details, such as the model’s embroidered slip and the tufts of the violet armchair. The pendulous breasts, protruding navel, and squat proportions owe much to Fang and Baule sculpture from Gabon and the Ivory Coast. The smooth surfaces and carefully rendered fabrics are a nod to the work of Ingres, whose birthplace and museum Picasso had visited a few months earlier. Woman in a Chemise announces Picasso’s return to the overt depiction of female sexuality after several years of ambiguously gendered figures. It is a provocative image, which has been interpreted as both misogynistic (the breasts appear almost nailed onto the body) and as a bemused send-up of naughty erotica popular at the time.
Inscription: Signed, inscribed, and dated (verso): PICASSO / PARIS 1913
[Galerie Kahnweiler, Paris, 1914; inv. no. 2099, photo no. 361; sold between July 3 and December 12, 1914 to Rosenberg]; Léonce Rosenberg, Paris (1914–18); [Galerie L’Effort Moderne (Léonce Rosenberg), Paris, 1918–24; inv. no. 5288, photo no. 86; sold on February 11, 1924, for Fr 19,500, to Reber]; Dr. Gottlieb Friedrich Reber, Lugano (1924–before 1932; [possibly a gift] by 1932 to Eichmann); Dr. Ingeborg Eichmann (later Dr. Ingeborg Pudelko-Eichmann), Zürich and elsewhere, by 1932–67; sold in April 1967 through Heinz Berggruen, Paris, to Ganz); Sally and Victor W. Ganz, New York (1967–his d. 1987); Sally Ganz, New York (1987–her d. 1997); their heirs, New York (1997; their sale, Christie’s, New York, November 10, 1997, no. 22, as "Femme assise dans un fauteuil [Eva]," autumn 1913, sold to Lauders); Leonard A. and Ronald S. Lauder, New York (1997–2012; in December 2012 to Leonard A. Lauder); Leonard A. Lauder, New York (from 2012)

Paris. Galerie L'Effort Moderne. "Pablo Picasso," 1919.

London. Leicester Galleries. "An Exhibition of Works by Pablo Picasso," January 1921, no. 21 (as 1914).

Paris. Galerie Georges Petit. "Exposition Picasso," June 16–July 30, 1932, no. 89 (as "La femme aux seins dorés," 1913).

Kunsthaus Zürich. "Picasso Retrospective, 1901–1931," September 11–October 30, 1932, extended to November 13, 1932, no. 79.

Brussels. Palais des Beaux-Arts. "Le nu dans l'art vivant," February–March 1934, no. 64 (as "La femme aux seins dorés").

London. New Burlington Galleries. "The International Surrealist Exhibition," June 11–July 4, 1936, no. 298 (as "The Woman with the Golden Breasts," 1914).

Paris. Petit Palais. "Les Maîtres de l'art indépendant, 1895–1937," June–October 1937, room 34, no. 12 (as "La Femme aux seins dorés").

Venice. Biennale. "XXV Biennale di Venezia," June 8–October 15, 1950, no. 35 (shown in Sala V, “Quattro maestri del Cubismo"; as 1913).

Kunsthalle Basel. "Phantastische Kunst des XX. Jahrhunderts," August 30–October 5, 1952, no. 178 (as 1913).

Musée de Lyon. "Picasso," June 1953, no. 30 (as 1913).

Milan. Palazzo Reale. "Pablo Picasso," September 23–December 31, 1953, no. 27 (as 1913) [probably on view until November 1953].

São Paolo. 2a Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna. "IIa Bienal: Exposiçáo Picasso," December 13, 1953–February 20, 1954, no. 6 (as 1913).

Paris. Musée des Arts Décoratifs. "Picasso: Peintures, 1900–1955," June 6–October 15, 1955, no. 40.

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Picasso: 75th Anniversary Exhibition," May 22–September 8, 1957, unnumbered cat. (p. 45; as [late] 1913).

Art Institute of Chicago. "Picasso: 75th Anniversary Exhibition," October 29–December 8, 1957, unnumbered cat.

Philadelphia Museum of Art. "Picasso: A Loan Exhibition of His Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture, Ceramics, Prints and Illustrated Books," January 8–February 23, 1958, no. 71a (as 1913).

London. Tate Gallery. "Pablo Picasso," July 6–September 18, 1960, no. 72 (as 1913).

Tokyo. National Museum of Modern Art. "Pikaso/Picasso," May 23–July 5, 1964, no. 27 (as 1913).

Kyoto. National Museum of Modern Art. "Pikaso/Picasso," July 10–August 2, 1964, no. 27.

Nagoya. Prefectural Museum of Art. "Pikaso/Picasso," August 8–18, 1964, no. 27.

Paris. Grand Palais (peintures) and Petit Palais (dessins, sculptures, céramiques). "Hommage à Pablo Picasso," November 20, 1966 –February 28, 1967, no. 90 (as autumn 1913).

London. Hayward Gallery. "Dada and Surrealism Reviewed," January 11–March 27, 1978, no. 1.30 (as "Femme en chemise assise dans un fauteuil," 1913).

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective," May 22–September 16, 1980, unnumbered cat. (p. 173; as autumn 1913).

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism," September 24, 1989–January 16, 1990, unnumbered cat. (p. 295; as [autumn 1913]).

Paris. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. "André Breton, la beauté convulsive," April 25–August 26, 1991, unnumbered cat. (p. 134; as 1913).

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Picasso and Portraiture: Representation and Transformation," April 28–September 17, 1996, unnumbered cat. (p. 291).

Paris. Grand Palais. "Picasso and Portraiture: Representation and Transformation," October 15, 1996–January 20, 1997, unnumbered cat.

New York. Whitney Museum of American Art. "Picasso and American Art," September 28, 2006–January 28, 2007, unnumbered cat. as 1913.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection," October 20, 2014–February 16, 2015, no. 72.

Roger Allard. "Picasso." Le Nouveau Spectateur 1, no. 4 (June 25, 1919), pp. 69–70.

Maurice Raynal. Pablo Picasso. Paris, 1920, unpaginated (list of plates), pl. 6, as 1914.

Maurice Raynal. Picasso. Munich, 1921, unpaginated (list of illustrations), ill. no. 47, as 1914.

Clive Bell. Catalogue of an Exhibition of Works by Pablo Picasso. Exh. cat., Leicester Galleries. London, 1921, p. 12, no. 21.

Maurice Raynal. Picasso. Paris, 1922, unpaginated (list of illustrations), ill. no. 47, as "Figure," 1914.

Bulletin de "L'Effort Moderne" no. 1 (January 1924), ill., as 1914.

André Breton. Le Surréalisme et la peinture. Paris, 1928, p. 19, as 1914.

E. Tériade. "Jeunesse!." Cahiers d'Art 6 (1931), ill. p. 23, as 1914.

H. S. Ede. "Picasso." Cahiers d'Art 7, nos. 3–4 (1932), ill. p. 134, as 1914.

Exposition Picasso. Exh. cat., Galerie Georges Petit. Paris, 1932, p. 34, no. 89 (German ed., p. 6, no. 79).

Will Grohmann. "Picasso." Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart: Unter Mitwirkung von etwas 400 Fachgelehrten. Ed. Ulrich Thieme Felix Becker. Vol. 26, Leipzig, 1932, p. 577, as "Le femme aux seins dorés".

René Édouard-Joseph. Dictionnaire biographique des artistes contemporains 1910–1930. Vol. 3, Paris, 1934, p. 134, as "La femme aux seins dorés," 1913.

Le nu dans l'art vivant. Exh. cat., Palais des Beaux-Arts. Brussels, 1934, p. 25, no. 64, ill.

Paul Éluard. "Je parle de ce qui est bien." Cahiers d'Art 10 (1935), p. 168.

Paul Éluard. "Je parle de ce qui est bien." Picasso, 1930–1935. 1935, p. 32.

André Breton. The International Surrealist Exhibition. Exh. cat., New Burlington Galleries. London, 1936, p. 26, no. 298.

V[iktor]. Nikodem. Pablo Picasso. Prague, 1936, no. 18, ill., as "Zena v lenosce" 1914.

Les maîtres de l'art indépendant, 1895–1937. Exh. cat., Petit Palais. Paris, 1937, p. 106, no. 12.

André Lhote. "Les Arts: Picasso." La Nouvelle Revue Française no. 306 (March 1, 1939), p. 531.

Christian Zervos. Pablo Picasso. Vol. 2b, Works from 1912 to 1917. Paris, 1942, unpaginated (list of plates), no. 522, pl. 239, as "Femme assise dans un fauteuil," 1914.

Paul Éluard. À Pablo Picasso. Geneva, 1945, p. 36, ill. p. 48, as 1913.

Joan Merli. Picasso, el artista y la obra de nuestro tiempo. 2nd ed. (1st ed.,1942). Buenos Aires, 1948, p. 600, no. 220, ill., as 1914.

Douglas Cooper in XXV Biennale di Venezia: Catalogo. Exh. cat., Biennale. Venice, 1950, p. 55, no. 35.

Maurice Gieure. Initiation à l'oeuvre de Picasso. Paris, 1951, p. 333, pl. 38, as "La femme aux seins dorés," 1913.

André Breton. "C'est à vous de parler, jeune voyant des choses..." XXe siècle no. 3 (June 1952), p. 29, as 1915.

Phantastische Kunst des XX. Jahrhunderts. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Basel. Basel, 1952, p. 27, no. 178, ill.

Madeleine Rocher-Jauneau, ed. Picasso. Exh. cat., Musée de Lyon. Lyon, 1953, unpaginated, no. 30, fig. 10.

Franco Russoli. Pablo Picasso. Exh. cat., Palazzo Reale. Milan, 1953, p. 42, no. 27, ill.

Maurice Jardot. Exposição Picasso: IIa Bienal do Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo. Exh. cat., Museu de Arte Moderna. Sao Paolo, 1953, p. 29, no. 6, ill.

Frank Elgar and Robert Maillard. Picasso: Étude de l'oeuvre. Paris, 1955, pp. 79, 83, ill. p. 272, as winter 1913.

Wilhelm Boeck and Jaime Sabartés. Picasso. New York, 1955, pp. 166, 169, 490, no. 127, ill. p. 380, as 1913; (French ed., pp. 174, 177, 490, no. 126, ill. p. 380 [as Femme assise dans un fauteuil]) (German ed., pp. 166, 169, 490, no. 126, ill. p. 380).

Maurice Jardot. Picasso: Peintures, 1900–1955. Exh. cat., Musée des Arts Décoratifs. Paris, 1955, unpaginated, no. 40, ill.

Frank Elgar and Robert Maillard. Picasso: A Study of His Work. New York, 1956, pp. 83, 87, 267, ill. p. 280, as winter 1913.

José Camón Aznar. Picasso y el Cubismo. Madrid, 1956, pp. 144, 147, 722, fig. 86, as 1914.

Antonina Vallentin. Pablo Picasso. Paris, 1957, pp. 212–13, 449, ill. facing p. 208, pl. XIII, as 1913.

Alfred H. Barr, Jr., ed. Picasso: 75th Anniversary Exhibition. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1957, ill. p. 45.

Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. Der Weg zum Kubismus. Stuttgart, 1958, pp. 85, 128, ill. p. 78, as 1913.

Carl Zigrosser. Picasso: A Loan Exhibition of His Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture, Ceramics, Prints and Illustrated Books. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1958, p. 17, no. 71a, ill.

John Golding. "The History of Cubism, 1907–1914." PhD diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, London, 1958, p. 198.

Umbro Apollonio. Fauves et cubistes. Paris, 1959, p. 93, ill. p. 61, as "Femme assise," 1913.

John Golding. Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914. New York, 1959, pp. 9, 125, pl. 20A.

The Institute of Contemporary Arts Honours Pablo Picasso. London, 1960, unpaginated, no. 72, as 1913.

Picasso. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1960, p. 31, no. 72, pl. 19b.

R. H. Wilenski and Roland Penrose. Picasso: Early Years. London, 1961, pp. 3, 12, ill. p. 13, pl. 5.

Pierre Cabanne. L'épopée du Cubisme. Paris, 1963, ill., as 1914.

Hans Ludwig C. Jaffé. Pablo Picasso. New York, 1964, pp. 29, 96, ill. p. 97, as 1913.

Pablo Picasso Exhibition: Japan, 1964. Exh. cat., National Museum of Modern Art. Tokyo, 1964, pp. 48, 137, no. 27, ill.

Shinichi Segui. Pablo Picasso. Tokyo, 1964, unpaginated, pl. 12, as 1913.

Hommage à Pablo Picasso. Exh. cat., Galeries nationales du Grand Palais. Paris, 1966, unpaginated, no. 90, ill.

François Mathey. L'arte moderna., Il Cubismo. Milan, 1967, p. 421, ill. p. 143, as 1913.

André Fermigier, ed. Picasso. Paris, 1967, p. 292, as 1913.

André Fermigier. "La révolution cubiste." Picasso. Ed. André Fermigier. Paris, 1967, pp. 104–5, ill. p. 102.

John Golding. Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914. 2nd ed. Boston, 1968, p. 130, pl. 30A.

Roland Penrose. Picasso. Basel, 1968, pp. 50, 150, no. 26, ill. p. 51, as 1914 and erroneously as exhibited at the Galerie Beyeler, November 1966–May 1967.

André Breton. "'C'est à vous de parler, jeune voyant des choses...'." Perspective cavalière. Ed. Marguerite Bonnet. Paris, 1970, p. 17, as 1915.

Jean Leymarie. Picasso: Métamorphoses et unité. Geneva, 1971, p. 53, ill. p. 74, as 1913.

Frank Elgar and Robert Maillard. Picasso: A Study of His Work. Rev. ed. New York, 1972, pp. 46–47, ill. p. 197, as 1913.

Franco Russoli and Fiorella Minervino. L'opera completa di Picasso cubista. Milan, 1972, p. 117, no. 626, ill., unpaginated (list of plates), pl. XLVII, as "Donna in camicia seduta in poltrona," 1913.

Max Kozloff. "Cubism and the Human Comedy." Art News 71, no. 5 (September 1972), p. 39, ill. p. 38, as 1913.

André Breton. Surrealism and Painting. New York, 1972, pp. 6–7, ill., as 1914.

Roland Penrose and John Golding, ed. Picasso in Retrospect. New York, 1973, p. 276, ill. no. 131.

Sarane Alexandrian. Dictionnaire de la peinture surréaliste. Paris, 1973, p. 51, as "La Femme aux seins dorés," 1913.

Carol Duncan. "Virility and Domination in Early 20th-Century Vanguard Painting." Artforum 12, no. 4 (December 1973), pp. 31, 33, ill. p. 32, as "Woman Sitting in an Armchair," 1913.

Max Kozloff. Cubism/Futurism. New York, 1973, pp. 95, 99, fig. 40, as 1913.

Roland Penrose. "Beauty and the Monster." Picasso in Retrospect. Ed. Roland Penrose and John Golding. New York, 1973, pp. 161–62, 270 n. 2.

John Golding. "Picasso and Surrealism." Picasso in Retrospect. Ed. Roland Penrose and John Golding. New York, 1973, pp. 87, 268–69 n. 18, as 1913.

Franz Meyer in Picasso: Aus dem Museum of Modern Art, New York, und Schweizer Sammlungen. Exh. cat., Kunstmuseum Basel. Basel, 1976, p. 72, ill. p. 70, as "Femme assise dans un fauteuil," 1914.

Pierre Cabanne. Pablo Picasso: H‎is Life and Times. New York, 1977, p. 240, as 1913.

Françoise Cachin and Fiorella Minervino. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Picasso, 1907–1916. Paris, 1977, p. 117, no. 626, ill., unpaginated (list of plates), pl. XLVII, as 1913.

Gaëtan Picon. Surrealists and Surrealism, 1919–1939. Geneva and New York, 1977, p. 210, ill. p. 49, as "Woman in a Chemise Sitting in an Armchair," 1913.

Dawn Ades. Dada and Surrealism Reviewed. Exh. cat., Hayward Gallery. [London], 1978, p. 26, no. 1.30, ill. p. 480.

Pierre Daix and Joan Rosselet. Picasso, The Cubist Years, 1907–1916: A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings and Related Works. Boston, 1979, p. 312, no. 642, ill., as "Woman in a Chemise, Seated in an Armchair," autumn 1913.

André Breton. Le Surréalisme et la peinture. Rev. ed. Paris, 1979, pp. 6–7, ill., as 1914.

Mary Mathews Gedo. Picasso: Art as Autobiography. Chicago, 1980, pp. 101–2, ill. p. 100, as 1913.

Linda Nochlin. "Picasso's Color: Schemes and Gambits." Art in America 68, no. 10 (December 1980), pp. 114, 123, 177, fig. 12, as autumn 1913.

William Rubin, ed. Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1980, p. 153, ill. p. 173.

John Golding. "Picasso and Surrealism." Picasso in Retrospect. Ed. Roland Penrose and John Golding. New York, 1980, pp. 57, 189 n. 2.

Keizō Kanki. Picasso. Tokyo, 1980, p. 117, no. 31, ill., as 1913.

Roland Penrose. "Beauty and the Monster." Picasso in Retrospect. Ed. Roland Penrose and John Golding. New York, 1980, pp. 104, 193 n. 2.

Bernice B. Rose. "Picasso: Artist of the Century." Vogue 170, no. 4 (April 1980), ill. p. 279, as 1913.

Roland Penrose. Scrap Book, 1900–1981. New York, 1981, ill. no. 161 (installed in “The International Surrealist Exhibition,” New Burlington Galleries, London, 1936).

Roland Penrose. Picasso: His Life and His Work. 3rd ed. (1st ed., 1958). Berkeley, 1981, pp. xiii, 192–93, pl. VIII, no. 3, as 1913.

Gary Tinterow. Master Drawings by Picasso. Exh. cat., Fogg Art Museum. Cambridge, Mass., 1981, p. 128, as late 1913.

Pierre Daix. Cubists and Cubism. Geneva, 1982, pp. 107, 130, 164, ill. p. 106, as 1913.

Carol Duncan. "Virility and Domination in Early Twentieth-Century Vanguard Painting." Feminism and Art History: Questioning the Litany. Ed. Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard. New York, 1982, p. 298, ill. no. 6, as 1913.

René Passeron. "Picasso, Pablo." Dictionnaire général du Surréalisme et de ses environs. Ed. Adam Biro and René Passeron. Fribourg, 1982, p. 333, as 1913.

Paul Éluard. "I Speak of What Is Right." A Picasso Anthology: Documents, Criticism, Reminiscences. Ed. Marilyn McCully. Princeton, 1982, p. 195.

André Lhote. "Picasso’s Reputation." A Picasso Anthology: Documents, Criticism, Reminiscences. Ed. Marilyn McCully. Princeton, 1982, p. 213.

Werner Spies with Christine Piot. Pablo Picasso: Das Plastische Werk: Werkverzeichnis der Skulpturen. Exh. cat., Nationalgalerie Berlin. Stuttgart, 1983, pp. 75, 407, ill., as "Frau in einem Sessel sitzend," autumn 1913.

Josep Palau i Fabre. Picasso. New York, 1985, unpaginated (list of illustrations), fig. 106, as autumn 1913.

Pierre Daix. Picasso créateur: La Vie intime et l'oeuvre. Paris, 1987, pp. 101, 143–44, 146, 221, 232, 336, 376, 412 n. 4, pp. 413–14 n. 6, as late 1913.

Christopher Green. Cubism and Its Enemies: Modern Movements and Reaction in French Art, 1916–1928. New Haven, 1987, pp. 100, 255–56, 285, pl. 301, as 1913.

Michèle Richet. Musée Picasso: Catalogue sommaire des collections. Vol. 2, Dessins, aquarelles, gouaches, pastels. Paris, 1987, p. 105, ill. p. 107, fig. 10.

John Golding. Cubism: A History and an Analysis 1907–1914. 3rd rev. ed. (1st ed., 1959; 2nd ed. 1968). Cambridge, Mass., 1988, pp. 130, 220, pl. 30A, as "Femme en Chemise assise dans un Fauteuil," 1913.

Hans Ludwig C. Jaffé. Pablo Picasso. Concise ed. London, 1988, pp. 29–30, 78, ill. p. 79, as 1913.

Janet Hobhouse. The Bride Stripped Bare: The Artist and the Nude in the Twentieth Century. London, 1988, pp. 109, 121, 128, pl. 99, as 1913.

David Cottington. "What the Papers Say: Politics and Ideology in Picasso's Collages of 1912." Art Journal 47 (Winter 1988), p. 353, as "Woman in an Armchair".

William Rubin, ed. Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1989, ill. p. 295, (German ed., 1990, p. 329, revised dating as [begun 1913–finished spring 1914], fig. 360; French ed., 1990, and Spanish ed., 1991, p. 328, revised dating as [begun late 1913–finished spring 1914], ill. p. 289).

Josep Palau i Fabre. Picasso: Cubism, 1907–1917. New York, 1990, pp. 346–50, 514, no. 994, ill. p. 349, as "Woman in a Shirt Sitting in an Armchair," autumn 1913.

John W. Erwin. Annunciations to Anyone: The Disclosure of Authority in Writing and Painting. New York, 1990, pp. 123, 128, pl. xxvi, as "Woman in a Chemise, Seated in an Armchair," 1913.

Brigitte Leal. Picasso: Une nouvelle dation. Exh. cat., Grand Palais. Paris, 1990, ill. p. 144, as 1913.

André Breton: La beauté convulsive. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. Paris, 1991, p. 495, ill. p. 134.

Pierre Daix in Picasso, la Provence & Jacqueline. Ed. Pierre Daix with Alain Charron. Exh. cat., Espace Van Gogh. Arles, 1991, pp. 33, 45 n. 29.

Pierre Daix in Picassos Surrealismus: Werke, 1925–1937. Ed. Ulrich Weisner. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bielefeld. Bielefeld, Bonn, and Stuttgart, 1991, p. 193, fig. 1, as 1913.

Roland Penrose in Picassos Surrealismus: Werke, 1925–1937. Ed. Ulrich Weisner. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bielefeld. Bielefeld, Bonn, and Stuttgart, 1991, pp. 217–18, fig. 1, as 1913.

Pierre Daix with Alain Charron, ed. Picasso, la Provence & Jacqueline. Exh. cat., Espace Van Gogh. Arles, 1991, p. 86, ill.

John Golding in Picassos Surrealismus: Werke, 1925–1937. Ed. Ulrich Weisner. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bielefeld. Bielefeld, Bonn, and Stuttgart, 1991, pp. 175–76, fig. 4, as 1913.

Pepe Karmel. "Appendix 2: Notes on the Dating of Works." Picasso and Braque: A Symposium. Ed. Lynn Zelevansky. New York, 1992, p. 336, as (autumn 1913).

Carsten-Peter Warncke. Pablo Picasso, 1881–1973. Ed. Ingo F. Walther. Vol. 1, The Works 1890–1936. Cologne, 1992, vol. 1, ill. p. 227, as "Sitzende Frau im Hemd in einem Sessel".

Pierre Cabanne. Le siècle de Picasso. Vol. 1, La naissance du Cubisme (1881–1912). Rev. ed. Paris, 1992, ill. no. 27, as 1913.

Mark Roskill et al. "Braque's Papiers Collés and the Feminine Side to Cubism. Discussion." Picasso and Braque: A Symposium. Ed. Lynn Zelevansky. New York, 1992, pp. 253, 259, fig. 15, as (autumn 1913).

Pierre Cabanne. Le siècle de Picasso. Vol. 2, L'époque des métamorphoses (1912–1937). Rev. ed. Paris, 1992, pp. 430–31.

Joseph Low (Pepe) Karmel. "Picasso's Laboratory: The Role of his Drawings in the Development of Cubism, 1910–14." PhD diss., Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, 1993, pp. 279–96, 311, 430, fig. 234, as autumn 1913.

Christian Geelhaar. Picasso: Wegbereiter und Förderer seines Aufstiegs, 1899–1939. Zürich, 1993, ill. p. 186 (installed in the “Exposition Picasso,” Galeries Georges Petit, Paris, 1932).

Pierre Daix. Picasso: Life and Art. New York, 1993, pp. 83, 135–36, 138, 212, 222, 326, 367, 407 n. 4, p. 409 n. 6.

John Golding. Visions of the Modern. London, 1994, pp. 74, 220–22, 235, 254, 364, ill. p. 221, as 1913.

Hans Albert Peters in Die Sammlung Kahnweiler: Von Gris, Braque, Léger, und Klee bis Picasso. Ed. Hans Albert Peters. Exh. cat., Kunstmuseum Düsseldorf. Munich, 1994, p. 20, no. 33, ill. (color), as "Frau in einem Sessel," 1913.

Pierre Daix. Dictionnaire Picasso. Paris, 1995, pp. 355–56.

Norman Mailer. Portrait of Picasso as a Young Man: An Interpretive Biography. New York, 1995, pp. 350–51, pl. 47.

Michael C. FitzGerald. Making Modernism: Picasso and the Creation of the Market for Twentieth-Century Art. New York, 1995, pp. 49, 75–76, 199, 258, as 1913.

Alan Bowness. Modern European Art. New York, 1995, ill. p. 115, ill. no. 111, as 1913.

Elizabeth Cowling. "The Fine Art of Cutting: Picasso's 'Papiers Collés' and Constructions in 1912–14." Apollo 142 (November 1995), pp. 14, 18 n. 34, as autumn 1913.

John Richardson with the collaboration of Marilyn McCully. A Life of Picasso. Vol. 2, 1907–1917. New York, 1996, pp. 285, 288–89, 299, ill. p. 284, as autumn 1913.

Pierre Daix in Picasso and Portraiture: Representation and Transformation. Ed. William Rubin. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1996, pp. 286–87, ill. p. 291.

André Fermigier. Picasso. New ed. Paris, 1996, pp. 106, 108, 396, no. 61, ill., as 1913.

Michael FitzGerald, ed. A Life of Collecting: Victor and Sally Ganz. New York, 1997, p. 233, ill. p. 9 (on display in the residence of Sally and Victor W. Ganz, New York, spring 1997).

Pepe Karmel et al. Picasso: Dessins et papiers collés, Céret, 1911–1913. Exh. cat., Musée d'art moderne de Céret. Céret, 1997, p. 21, fig. 4, as autumn 1913.

Carol Vogel. "Prized Picasso Leads the Ganz Collection to a Record Auction of $206 Million." New York Times (November 11, 1997), p. A24, as "Woman Seated in an Armchair (Eva)," 1913.

John Richardson. "Picasso: Paintings, Drawings, and Sculpture." A Life of Collecting: Victor and Sally Ganz. Ed. Michael FitzGerald. New York, 1997, pp. 60–62, ill. p. 63, as 1913.

Richard Martin Foreword by Philippe de Montebello. Cubism and Fashion. Exh. cat.New York, 1998, p. 92, ill. (color), as "Woman in an Armchair," 1913.

Franz Meyer in Ein Haus für den Kubismus–Die Sammlung Raoul La Roche: Picasso, Braque, Léger, Gris–Le Corbusier und Ozenfant. Ed. Katharina Schmidt and Hartwig Fischer. Exh. cat., Kunstmuseum Basel. Ostfildern-Ruit, 1998, ill. p. 53, fig. 10, as autumn 1913.

John Richardson. The Sorcerer's Apprentice: Picasso, Provence, and Douglas Cooper. New York, 1999, p. 29.

Brigitte Leal, Christine Piot, and Marie-Laure Bernadac. The Ultimate Picasso. New York, 2000, pp. 172, 510, fig. 385 (French ed., pp. 172–73, 510, fig. 385).

Werner Spies with Christine Piot. Picasso: The Sculptures. Exh. cat., Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Ostfildern-Ruit, 2000, pp. 91, 425, ill., as autumn 1913.

Elizabeth Cowling. Picasso: Style and Meaning. London, 2002, pp. 263, 265, 268, ill. no. 228, as 1913.

André Breton. Surrealism and Painting. Boston, 2002, pp. 6–7, ill., as 1914.

Pierre Cabanne. Matisse, Picasso: Des années cubistes aux années glorieuses. Paris, 2002, pp. 43, 101, as 1913.

Pavla Sadílková and Lada Hubatová-Vacková in Vincenc Kramář: Un théorician et collectionneur du cubisme à Prague. Exh. cat.Paris, 2002, p. 236.

Pepe Karmel. Picasso and the Invention of Cubism. New Haven, 2003, pp. 93–94, 163, 178, 194, fig. 123, as autumn 1913.

Jack Flam. "Crossings." Matisse and Picasso: The Story of Their Rivalry and Friendship. Camrbidge, MA, 2003, pp. 97–98, 187–88, 257, fig. 6.3, as "Woman in an Armchair (Eva)," 1913.

Anne Baldassari in Picasso surreal = Picasso surréaliste = The Surrealist Picasso. Ed. Anne Baldassari. Exh. cat., Fondation Beyeler, Basel. Paris, 2005, pp. 29, 164, 245, fig. 148 (installed in “The International Surrealist Exhibition,” New Burlington Galleries, London, 1936).

Étienne-Alain Hubert in Picasso surreal = Picasso surréaliste = The Surrealist Picasso. Ed. Anne Baldassari. Exh. cat., Fondation Beyeler, Basel. Paris, 2005, pp. 206, 210, ill. p. 209, fig. 97, as "Woman in a Chemise Sitting in an Armchair," 1914.

Julia May Boddewyn in Michael FitzGerald. Picasso and American Art. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 2006, p. 375.

Michael FitzGerald. Picasso and American Art. Exh. cat., Whitney Museum of American Art. New York, 2006, pp. 280, 386, pl. 145.

James Stourton. Great Collectors of Our Time: Art Collecting Since 1945. London, 2007, p. 151, as "Woman in an Armchair," 1913.

John Richardson in collaboration with Marilyn McCully. "The Cubist Rebel, 1907–1916." A Life of Picasso. 2009, p. 407.

Tobia Bezzola. Picasso by Picasso: His First Museum Exhibition, 1932. Exh. cat., Kunsthaus Zürich. Munich, 2010, pp. 200, 223, Zürich no. 79, ill., as "Femme assise dans un fauteuil," 1913.

Anne Umland. Picasso: Guitars, 1912–1914. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 2011, p. 30, ill. p. 31, fig. 9 (installed in the exhibition “Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective,” Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1980).

Pierre Daix. Le nouveau dictionnaire Picasso. Paris, 2012, p. 350.

Pierre Daix. Braque avec Picasso: L'album de l'exposition. Exh. cat., Grand Palais. Paris, 2013, p. 32.

Carol Vogel. "Billion-Dollar Cubist Gift to the Met." International Herald Tribune (April 11, 2013), p. 12, ill.

Carol Vogel. "$1 Billion Gift Gives Met a New Perspective (Cubist)." New York Times (April 10, 2013), p. A18, ill. p. A1, as "Woman in an Armchair (Eva)".

Jennifer Maloney. "The Secret behind Lauder's Gift." Wall Street Journal (May 24, 2013), p. D8, ill. (installed at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), as "Woman in an Armchair (Eva)/Femme assise dans un fauteuil (Eva)".

T. J. Clark. Picasso and Truth: From Cubism to Guernica. Princeton, 2013, p. 183, fig. 4.32, as 1913.

"Objects Promised to the Museum during the Year 2012–2013." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, One Hundred Forty-third Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013 (2013), p. 47, as "Woman in an Armchair (Eva) [Femme assise dans un fauteuil (Eva)]".

Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 233, 321(2)n.18.

Emily Braun in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 147–50, 153–55, 313(1)n.2, (2)nn.3, 7, 8, 10, 13, (3)nn.14, 15, (4)nn.24, 27, no. 72, ill. p. 148 (color).

Pepe Karmel in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, p. 192.

Anna Jozefacka and Luise Mahler in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 294–96, figs. 72A (on display in the residence of Sally and Victor W. Ganz, New York, 1997), 72B (installation photo, Exh. Brussels 1934), 72C (in Ref. Bulletin de 'L'Effort Moderne' 1924).

"The Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection: A Conversation with Emily Braun and Pepe Karmel." IFAR Journal 16, no. 3 (2015), pp. 33, 49, figs. 1 (color, as reproduced on the front page of the New York Times, April 13, 2013) and 27A (color).

Neil Cox in Christopher Green. Cubism and War: The Crystal in the Flame. Exh. cat.Barcelona, 2016, pp. 76, 78.