Exhibitions/ Art Object

Bottle, Glass, and Pipe (Violette de Parme)

Artist:
Georges Braque (French, Argenteuil 1882–1963 Paris)
Date:
Paris, early 1914
Medium:
Cut-and-pasted newspaper, painted paper and wallpaper, charcoal, graphite, and gouache on paperboard
Dimensions:
18 15/16 × 24 3/16 in. (48.1 × 61.4 cm)
Classifications:
Drawings, Collages
Credit Line:
Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Collection, Gift of Leonard A. Lauder, 2016
Accession Number:
2016.237.15
Rights and Reproduction:
© 2018 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York
Not on view
Braque integrated newspaper clippings and wallpaper into this composition by drawing on top of them and by mimicking some of the printed designs by hand on the rest of the sheet. He called attention to the complicated layering of papers by representing the pipe in negative space. Yet he gave the pipe dimension by shading its bowl, which holds the small but distinctive logo of the Gaumont film studio. The phrase “Violette de Parme”—a feminine fragrance introduced by Roger et Gallet in 1880—comes from the simple advertisement at the bottom of the newspaper fragment.
Inscription: Signed (lower right): G. Braque
[Galerie Kahnweiler, Paris, 1914; inv. no. 2241, photo no. 1587]; [Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris, 1950; no. 04718]; Sir Edward and Lady Nika Hulton, London (1953–81; sold on March 18, 1981 to Marlborough); [Marlborough Fine Art Ltd., London, 1981–82; sold in 1982 to Lauder]; Ronald Lauder, New York (1982–89; in February 1989 to Estée Lauder); his mother, Estée Lauder (née Josephine Esther Mentzer), New York (1989–2000; in March 2000 to Leonard A. Lauder); her son, Leonard A. Lauder, New York (2000–2013; transferred on April 8, 2013 to the Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Trust); The Leonard A. Lauder Cubist Trust, New York (2013–16; gift to MMA)

Paris. Musée National d'Art Moderne. "Le Cubisme (1907–1914)," January 30–April 9, 1953, no. 159.

London. Institute of Contemporary Arts Gallery. "George Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings from Collections in England, with Lithographs, 1909–1953," May 15–July 3, 1954, no. 8.

Edinburgh. Royal Scottish Academy. "G. Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings," August 18–September 15, 1956, no. 39 (as 1913).

London. Tate Gallery. "G. Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings," September 28–November 11, 1956, no. 39.

London. Tate Gallery. "A Selection of Pictures, Drawings and Sculpture from the Collections of Sir Edward and Lady Hulton," August 29–September 18, 1957, no. 2.

Munich. Haus der Kunst. "Georges Braque," October 18–December 15, 1963, no. 41 (as 1913).

Wuppertal. Kunsthalle Barmen. "Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London," September 9–November 15, 1964, no. 2 (as 1913).

Rotterdam. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen. "Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London," November 27, 1964–January 17, 1965, no. 2.

Frankfurter Kunstverein. "Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London," February–March 1965, no. 2.

Munich. Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus. "Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London," April 3–May 9, 1965, no. 2.

Dortmund. Museum am Ostwall. "Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London," (June)–August 8, 1965, no. 2.

Kunsthaus Zürich. "Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London," December 3, 1967–January 7, 1968, no. 3 (as 1913).

Frankfurt. Frankfurter Kunstverein. "Collagen aus sechs Jahrzehnten," April 6–May 19, 1968, no. 21 (as 1913).

Kunstgewerbemuseum Zürich. "Collagen: Die Geschichte der Collage," June 8–August 18, 1968, unnumbered cat. (p. 55).

Paris. Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou. "Georges Braque: Les papiers collés," June 17–September 27, 1982, no. 41.

Washington, D.C. National Gallery of Art. "Braque: The Papiers Collés," October 31, 1982–January 16, 1983, no. 44.

London. Tate Gallery. "The Essential Cubism, 1907–1920: Braque, Picasso & their friends," April 27–July 10, 1983, extended to July 31, 1983, no. 32 (as "Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass," autumn 1913).

New York. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. "Aspects of Collage, Assemblage and the Found Object in Twentieth Century Art," March 29–May 22, 1988.

New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism," September 24, 1989–January 16, 1990, unnumbered cat. (p. 318; as [spring] 1914).

New York. Acquavella Galleries. "Georges Braque: Pioneer of Modernism," October 12–November 30, 2011, no. 22.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection," October 20, 2014–February 16, 2015, no. 15.

Le Cubisme, 1907–1914. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne. Paris, 1953, p. 55, no. 159, pl. XLII.

Georges Braque: An Exhibition of Paintings and Drawings from Collections in England, with Lithographs, 1909–1953. Exh. cat., Institute of Contemporary Arts Gallery. London, 1954, unpaginated, no. 8.

G. Braque. Exh. cat., Royal Scottish Academy, Edinburgh. London, 1956, p. 37, no. 39, pl. 10.

Maurice Gieure. G. Braque. New York, 1956, p. 98, pl. 30 (French ed., p. 114, pl. 30), as "Papier collé (Violette de Parme)," ca. 1914.

A Selection of Pictures, Drawings and Sculpture from the Collections of Sir Edward and Lady Hulton. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1957, unpaginated, no. 2.

Frank Elgar. Braque, 1906–1920. New York, 1958, pl. 14, as "Parma Violet," ca. 1914.

John Golding. "The History of Cubism, 1907–1914." PhD diss., Courtauld Institute of Art, London, 1958, p. 171.

Guy Habasque. Cubism: Biographical and Critical Study. New York, 1959, p. 167, ill. p. 78.

John Golding. Cubism: A History and an Analysis, 1907–1914. New York, 1959, pp. 7, 109, pl. B, facing p. 108, as 1913.

Denys Chevalier. "Georges Braque." Aujourd'hui, Art et Architecture no. 34 (December 1961), ill. p. 6, as "Violette de Parme," ca. 1914.

Douglas Cooper. Georges Braque. Exh. cat., Haus der Kunst. Munich, 1963, p. 39, no. 41, fig. 37.

Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Barmen. Wuppertal, 1964, unpaginated, no. 2, ill.

John Berger. The Success and Failure of Picasso. Harmondsworth and Baltimore, 1965, unpaginated (list of illustrations), ill. no. 30.

Robert L. Delevoy. Dimensions of the 20th Century: 1900-1945. Geneva, 1965, p. 221, ill. p. 120 (color), as "Violette de Parme".

Robert Rosenblum. Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art. Rev. ed. (1st ed., 1960). New York, 1966, pp. 96, 319, ill. no. 49, as 1913.

Hulton-samlingen. Exh. cat., Moderna Museet. Stockholm, 1966, unpaginated, no. 1, ill., as "Flaska, glas och pipa," 1913.

Sammlung Sir Edward und Lady Hulton, London. Exh. cat., Kunsthaus Zürich. Zürich, 1967, p. 11, no. 3, ill.

Collagen: Die Geschichte der Collage. Exh. cat., Kunstgewerbemuseum Zürich. Zürich, 1968, p. 55, ill.

Collagen aus sechs Jahrzehnten. Exh. cat., Frankfurter Kunstverein. Frankfurt, 1968, p. 38, no. 21, ill.

Nadine Pouillon. Braque. Paris, 1970, pl. V, as "Violette de Parme".

Paul Waldo Schwartz. Cubism. New York, 1971, pp. 102, 209, ill. no. 69, as 1913.

Marco Valsecchi and Massimo Carrà. L'opera completa di Braque dalla scomposizione cubista al recupero dell'oggetto, 1908–1929. Milan, 1971, p. 93, no. 130, ill. p. 92, as "Violette de Parme," 1914.

Pierre Descargues and Massimo Carrà. Tout l'oeuvre peint de Braque, 1908–1929. Paris, 1973, p. 93, no. 130, ill. p. 92, as "Nature morte (Violettes de Parme)," 1914.

Kurt Rowland. A History of the Modern Movement: Art Architecture Design. New York, 1973, pp. 108-9, ill., as "Bottle and Pipe," 1913.

Maciej Gutowski. Braque, 1906–1920. Warsaw, 1975, pl. 14, as "Fiołki Parmeńskie (Violette de Parme)".

Robert Rosenblum. Cubism and Twentieth Century Art. Rev. ed. New York, 1976, pp. 91, 341, ill. no. 49, as 1913.

Ulrich Weisner. Zeichnungen und Collagen des Kubismus: Picasso, Braque, Gris. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Bielefeld. Bielefeld, 1979, p. 272, ill. no. 172, as 1913.

Nicole Worms de Romilly and Jean Laude. [Catalogue de l'œuvre de Georges Braque]. Vol. [1], Le Cubisme, fin 1907–1914. [Paris], 1982, p. 287, no. 224, ill. p. 235.

Isabelle Monod-Fontaine with E. A. Carmean, Jr. Braque: The Papier Collés. Exh. cat., Musée National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris. Washington, D.C., 1982, p. 132, no. 44, ill., and pl. 7 (French ed., p. 146, no. 41, ill. p. 147), erroneously listed as no. 40 and as in the collection of John R. Gaines.

Douglas Cooper and Gary Tinterow. The Essential Cubism: Braque, Picasso & their friends, 1907–1920. Exh. cat., Tate Gallery. London, 1983, p. 98, no. 32, ill. p. 99.

Jean-Paul Bouillon. "L'énigme cubiste: Picasso, Léger, Braque, Gris." Beaux Arts Magazine (May 1983), ill. p. 46, ill. no. 3, erroneously as in the collection of the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.

Isabelle Monod-Fontaine in Georges Braque, 1882–1963. Exh. cat., Museu Picasso. Barcelona, 1986, pp. 34, 36, fig. 3.

William Rubin, ed. Picasso and Braque: Pioneering Cubism. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1989, ill. p. 318 (German ed., 1990, fig. 395; French ed., 1990, and Spanish ed., 1991, ill. p. 312).

Leo J. O'Donovan. "To Find Originality." America 161, no. 13 (November 4, 1989), p. 299.

Mary Acton. Learning to Look at Modern Art. London and New York, 2004, pp. xvi, 126, 130-34, pl. 50, as "Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass," 1913.

Fred S. Kleiner and Christin J. Mamiya. Gardner's Art through the Ages. 12th ed. Belmont, Calif., 2005, pp. 974–75, fig. 33-13, as "Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe, and Glass," 1913.

Helen Gardner and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner's Art through the Ages: A Global History. 13th ed. Boston, 2009, pp. 922–23, fig. 35-17, as "Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe, and Glass," 1913.

Richard Shiff in Georges Braque: Pioneer of Modernism. Exh. cat., Acquavella Galleries. New York, 2011, pp. 33–34.

Georges Braque: Pioneer of Modernism. Exh. cat., Acquavella Galleries. New York, 2011, p. 110, pl. 22.

"Objects Promised to the Museum during the Year 2012–2013." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, One Hundred Forty-third Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013 (2013), p. 45, as "Bottle, Newspaper, Glass, and Pipe (Violette de Parme)," spring 1914.

Anne Umland in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 105, 309 nn.45–47, no. 15, ill. p. 102 (color).

Anna Jozefacka and Luise Mahler in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection. Ed. Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 254–55, fig. 15 (installation photo, Exh. Washington 1982–83).

Newspaper fragment at bottom right from page 8 of Le Journal, December 12, 1913
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