Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

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Index Classification: Material and Technique


Metalwork, Steel

Works of Art (120)

Architect's table, ca. 1780–95, David Roentgen (German, 1743–1807), Oak, mahogany, walnut, pine, and cherry, veneered with mahogany; gilt bronze, brass, iron, steel; partially tooled and gilded leather; Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Smithsonian Institution (Inv. no. 1952-160-1) (L.2009.19)
Armet with Wrapper, ca. 1460–70 (armet), 1450 (wrapper), Italian, Steel (20.150.1)
Armor for Field and Tournament, 1527, Made in the Royal Workshops, English (Greenwich), Steel, etched and gilded overall (19.131.1,2)
Armor for Heavy Cavalry, ca. 1600, French, Steel, etched and gilt; leather; textile (27.177.1,2)
Armor for Henry II of France, ca. 1555, After designs by Étienne Delaune, French (Paris), Steel, embossed, blued, silvered, and gilded (39.121)
Armor of Emperor Ferdinand I, 1549, Made by Kunz Lochner, German (Nuremberg), Etched steel (33.164)
Armor of George Clifford, Third Earl of Cumberland, ca. 1580–85, Made in the Royal Workshops, English (Greenwich), Steel, etched, blued, and gilded (32.130.6)
Armor of heavy cavalry, ca. 1610–20, Italian (Milan or Brescia), Steel, gold, leather, and textile (2002.130a–p)
Armor of Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, 1712, Made by Drouar (possibly André Drouart), France (Paris), Blued and gilt steel; gilt brass; silk; cotton; metallic yarn; paper (1989.3)
Armor, ca. 1400 and later, Italian, Steel, brass, textile (29.154.3)
Armor, ca. 1575, Inscribed: D.G.V. Lochorst, Flemish (possibly Antwerp), Steel, embossed and punched (38.137)
Armors for Man and Horse, dated 1548, Kunz Lochner (German), German (Nuremberg), Etched steel, leather (29.151.2. 32.69)
Automaton in the form of a chariot pushed by a Chinese attendant and set with a clock, 1766, Signed by James Cox (English), Case: gold, with diamonds and paste jewels set in silver; pearls; dial: white enamel; movement: brass, partly gilded, and steel; the balance wheel and cock of silver set with paste jewels (1982.60.137)
"Barbute" sallet, ca. 1470–80, Italian (Milan), Steel (04.3.232)
Bard made for Johann Ernst, Duke of Saxony-Coburg, dated 1548, Attributed to Kunz Lochner (German), German (Nuremberg), Steel, brass (32.69)
Blade for a dagger (tanto), late 13th–early 14th century; Kamakura period, Made by Rai Kunitoshi (Japanese), Steel (1991.373a)
Blade for a Katana (Sword), Muromachi period, dated 1526, Masazane (Japanese), Japanese, Steel (2001.574)
Blades and mountings for a pair of swords (daisho), long sword: dated 1440; short sword: 15th century; Muromachi period, Long sword (katana) inscribed by Sukemitsu of Bizen; short sword (wakizashi) attributed to Yasumitsu, Japanese, Steel; Short sword (wakizashi) (36.120.417,418)
"Blind" shaffron for the joust, ca. 1490, German, Steel, brass, textile (04.3.292)
Breast defense (peytral) and detail of a pair of neck defenses (crinet) from a horse armor, 15th–17th century, Tibetan or Mongolian, Leather, iron, brass or copper alloy, gold, shellac, pigments, textile, and hair (1997.242a–c)
Burgonet with Falling Buffe, ca. 1555, French (Paris), Steel, blued and gilded (04.3.217; 22.140)
Burgonet, 1543, Made by Filippo Negroli, Italian (Milan), Steel, embossed and damascened with gold (17.190.1720)
Cantle plate, 1563, German (Augsburg), Steel (21.102.9)
Cavalry Armor, ca. 1600, Italian (Milan), Steel, engraved, gilt, silvered, and damascened in gold (38.148.1a–n)
Cavalry Helmet (Zischägge), ca. 1630–40, German, Steel, gold, brass, leather, textile (14.25.611)
Center table, ca. 1780–85, Russia (Tula, Imperial Armory), Steel, silver, gilded copper, gilded brass, basswood, mirror glass (replacement) (2002.115)
Ceremonial arrowheads, 1437–39
Bohemian, possibly Prague, Steel, engraved and inlaid with copper alloy, (66.199; 1984.17; 1988.170)
Clock watch with calendar, ca. 1600–1610, Movement probably by Nicolas Forfaict the Elder (French), Case: silver and gilded brass; Dial: gilded brass and silver, with a steel hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1607)
Close helmet with mask visor, ca. 1515, Attributed to Kolman Helmschmid (German), Augsburg, Germany, Steel, embossed, etched, and gilt (04.3.286a)
Colt Third Model Dragoon Percussion Revolver, ca. 1853, Made by Samuel Colt (inventor and manufacturer); Decorated by Gustave Young (engraver), American (Hartford, Conn.), Steel, brass, gold, walnut (1995.336)
Congressional presentation sword of Major General John E. Wool, 1854–55, United States, possibly Baltimore, Steel, gold, gilded brass, diamonds, rubies, wood, silver, textile (2009.8a–c)
Cross-hilt sword, 1600–1625, England (London) and Germany (Solingen), Iron, silver, wood, copper alloy, steel, and gold (2010.165)
Cuirass (char-aina), late 18th–19th century, Probably Indian, Steel, gold (48.92.1)
Cuirass and Tassets (Torso and Thigh Defense), ca. 1510–20, Attributed to Kolman Helmschmid (German), German (Augsburg), Etched steel (38.143)
Dagger (kard), ca. 1800; Qajar, Iranian, Steel, ivory, gold (36.25.1043)
Dagger with hilt in the form of a blue bull (nilgai), Mughal period (1526–1858), ca. 1640, India, Hilt: nephrite, blade: watered steel (1985.58a,b)
Dagger with jeweled hilt, Mughal period (1526–1858), ca. 1605–27, Northern India, Hilt: gold, rubies, colored glass, blade: crucible steel, scabbard: wood, velvet, gold inset with rubies and colored glass (1984.332)
Dagger with Zoomorphic Hilt, second half 16th century, India, Deccan, Bijapur or Golconda, Hilt: copper, cast, chased, gilded, and inlaid with rubies. Blade: steel, forged (2011.236)
Dagger, 19th century, Caucasian, Steel, wood, silver, niello (81.1.599)
Double-Barreled Wheellock Pistol of Emperor Charles V, ca. 1540–45, Made by Peter Peck, German (Munich), Steel, etched and gilded; wood, inlaid with engraved staghorn (14.25.1425)
Elements of a Light-Cavalry Armor, ca. 1505–10, Christian Schreiner the Younger (Mühlau), Austrian (Innsbruck/Mühlau), Steel (1991.4)
Elements of a Light-Cavalry Armor, ca. 1510, Italian (Milan), Steel, etched and gilded (14.25.716)
Escutcheon plate from a shaffron, ca. 1530–40, German (probably Augsburg), Steel and gold (1985.259.2)
Field Ensign, ca. 1500; Mamluk, Syria, Steel (36.25.1961)
Flintlock Sporting Gun of Empress Margarita Teresa, ca. 1670–73, Jacques Lamarre (French), Steel, wood, silver, copper alloy, gold (2011.354)
Half-shaffron, ca. 1570–80, Italian (probably Milan), Steel, gold, brass, leather, hemp (14.25.1666)
Hand-and-half sword, ca. 1400–1430, Probably Germany, Steel and copper alloy (2006.564)
Harquebus Armor of Pedro II, King of Portugal, ca. 1683, Attributed to Richard Holden, English (London), Steel, engraved, blued, and gilded (15.113.1-5; 29.158.885)
Head of a Hunting Spear, 1425–50, German or Austrian, Steel, inlaid with brass (14.25.321)
Helmet, dated 1808–9, Caucasian, Steel, silver, niello, gold (36.25.119)
Helmet, late 15th century; Ak-Koyunlu/Shivran, Iranian, Steel, engraved and damascened with silver (50.87)
Helmet, mid-16th century; Ottoman period, Turkish, Steel, damascened with gold (04.3.456a)
"How High the Moon" armchair, 1986, Shiro Kuramata (Japanese); Manufacturer: Vitra AG, Basel, Nickel-plated steel mesh (1988.186)
Hunting Sword, ca. 1740–50, Ivory grip attributed to Joseph Deutschmann, German (possibly Munich), Steel, silver-gilt, ivory, leather (26.145.243)
Hunting sword, ca. 1825, Emanuel Pioté (Austrian); Jacob H. Köchert (Austrian), Steel, gold, enamel, agate, wood, leather (48.26)
Left side panel of a crupper, ca. 1480–1500, Probably South German or Austrian, Steel (29.158.606)
Mail shirt, 15th century, Southern German (?), Steel, brass (14.25.1540)
Mantel Clock (Telleruhr), ca. 1710, Movement by Franz Xaver Gegenreiner (German); Repoussé silver by Johann Andreas Thelot (German), Case: tortoiseshell veneer and silver, partly gilt; Dial: champlevé silver with black numerals; Movement: brass and steel (46.162)
Morion, ca. 1560–65, Germany (Brunswick), Etched steel (1999.62)
Netting Quail, 16th century, After a Design by Augustin Hirschvogel (German, 1503–1553), Colorless glass, silver stain, vitreous paint, and cold enamel (1979.185)
New Model No. 3 Single-Action Revolver, 1888–89, Smith & Wesson (American); Tiffany & Co. (American), Springfield, Massachusetts, and New York, Serial no. 25120: partly nickel-plated steel, silver (2007.477)
Odalisque, 1984, Anthony Caro (British), Steel (1984.328a-d)
Oval table, ca. 1774–80, David Roentgen (German, 1743–1807), Oak, walnut, pine, cherry, cedar, and maple, veneered with maple, hornbeam, holly (all partially stained), cherry, mahogany, tulipwood, and other woods; gilt bronze, iron, brass, steel; partially tooled and gilded leather (58.75.39)
Pair of flintlock pistols of Empress Catherine the Great, 1786, Johan Adolph Grecke (Russian), Russian (Saint Petersburg), Steel, ivory, gold, and brass (1986.265.1–2)
Pair of flintlock pistols, 1800–1801, Samuel Brunn (English); Michael Barnett (English), Steel, wood, silver, gold (1992.330.1-.2)
Pair of snaphaunce pistols, ca. 1690, Matteo Cecchi, called Acquafresca (Italian), Italy (Bargi), Steel, silver, ebony (2006.471.1,2)
Pair of Tournament Pauldrons, ca. 1500, Lorenz Helmschmid (German), German (Augsburg), Steel (29.156.67 h,j)
Pair-case automaton watch, ca. 1770–75, Signed by James Cox (English), Outer case: gold, partly enameled and set with gemstones and paste jewels; inner case: gold with casemaker's mark of Peter Mounier (English); dial: white enamel, with frame set with paste jewels; movement: brass, steel, and silver (1977.436.4)
Parade helmet à l'antique, ca. 1620–30, French (possibly Paris), Steel, brass, paint, and textile (1997.341)
Parade Helmet in Hispano-Moresque Style, late 15th–early 16th century, Spanish, Steel, gold, silver, cloisonné enamel (1983.413)
Parrying dagger (pugnale bolognese), ca. 1550–75, Italian, Partly gilt steel, brass, and wood (26.145.94)
Pommel plate, ca. 1580, French or Flemish, Steel and gold (29.171)
Portions of a Costume Armor, ca. 1525, Kolman Helmschmid, German (Augsburg), Steel, embossed, etched, and gilded (24.179; 26.188.1,2)
Presentation Sword, ca. 1815–17, Made by John Targee (American, New York), Gold, steel (22.19)
Rapier of Prince-Elector Christian II of Saxony, 1606, Hilt by Israel Schuech (Dresden); Blade by Juan Martinez (Toledo, Spain), German (Dresden), Steel, bronze-gilt with traces of enamel, paste jewels, cameos, pearls (1970.77)
The Refusal of Time, 2012, William Kentridge (South African), Five-channel video installation with steel megaphones and a breathing machine ("elephant") (2012.250), © William Kentridge. All Rights Reserved
Ritual Sword, ca. 15th century Tibet Steel with gold and silver inlays (1985.397)
Rolltop desk, ca. 1776–79, David Roentgen (German, 1743–1807), Oak, cherry, pine, mahogany, veneered with maple, burl woods, holly, hornbeam (all partially stained), tulipwood, mahogany, and other woods; mother-of-pearl; partially gilded and tooled leather; gilt bronze, iron, steel, brass, and partially gold-lacquered brass (41.82)
Saber, 16th century; Ottoman, Turkish, Steel inlaid with gold, precious stones, fishskin (36.25.1297)
Saber, 18th and 19th century, Turkey, Steel, nephrite, gold (36.25.1293)
Saber, 19th century; Ottoman period, Turkish, Steel, gold, diamonds, emeralds, pearls (23.232.2)
Saddle, ca. 1570–80, Italian (Milan), Wood, textiles, iron, leather, steel, and gold (04.3.252)
Sallet in the Shape of a Lion's Head, 1470–80, Italian, Steel, copper-gilt, glass, polychromy (23.141)
"September" armchair, 1973, Shigeru Uchida (Japanese); Manufacturer: Build Co. Ltd., Melamine baked steel pipe, melamine baked stainless steel wire (1988.192)
Settee, ca. 1876–85, George Hunzinger (American; firm active New York City), Ebonized cherry, fabric-covered steel mesh (1992.269)
Shaffron and crinet plate, ca. 1555, Kunz Lochner (German), German (Nuremberg), Steel, etched, gilt, and painted; gilt brass (21.42) (14.25.854)
Shaffron in the "Oriental" fashion, ca. 1560–70, Italian (probably Brescia), Steel, brass, leather (14.25.1664)
Shaffron of Henry II of France when Dauphin, ca. 1490–1500, redecorated 1539, Attributed to Romain des Ursins (Milan, rec. Lyon), Franco-Italian, Steel, gold, brass (04.3.253)
Shaffron, ca. 1540, German (probably Landshut), Steel, pewter, leather, textile (14.25.1644)
Shears, 18th–19th century, Turkey, Steel, bronze, gold (67.55.127)
Shield of Henry II of France, ca. 1555, Probably after designs by Étienne Delaune, French (Paris), Steel, embossed and damascened with gold and silver (34.85)
Shirt of mail and plate, dated A.H. 1042/A.D. 1632–33, Indian, Iron, steel, gold, leather (2008.245)
Short sword (duan jian), ca. 4th–1st century B.C., Eastern Central Asia, Steel, bronze, and gold (1998.418)
"Siega a dossier basculant" Armchair LC/1 (model B 301), 1929, Le Corbusier (Charles-Édouard Jeanneret) (French, born Switzerland), Chrome-plated tubular steel, canvas (2003.293)
Smallsword with scabbard, hallmarked for 1773–74, Master GG (active Paris), France (Paris), Gold, steel, wood, fish skin (1998.35a,b)
Smallsword, ca. 1655–60, French, probably Paris, Iron, gold, wood, copper alloy, steel (2011.63)
Snaphuance hunting rifle, dated 1722, Jonas Schertiger the Younger (Swedish), Swedish (Stockholm), Steel, walnut, brass, and horn (1997.356)
Sword, 10th century, European (possibly Scandinavian), Steel, copper, silver (55.46.1)
Sword, ca. 1400, Western European, Steel, silver, copper, leather (32.75.225)
Tanto (Dagger), Kamakura and Edo period, Blade dated November 1333; Mountings 19th century, Uda Kunimitsu (Japanese), Blade: steel; mountings: silver, copper, gold, shakudo, ray skin, sharkskin, and wood (1998.127.2)
Tea chest, ca. 1750–55, Abraham Roentgen (German, 1711–1793), Oak, cedar, veneered with rosewood; brass, iron, and steel (1999.147)
Tournament Helm (Stechhelm), ca. 1500, German (probably Nuremberg), Steel, brass (29.156.67a)
Traveling clock watch with alarm, ca. 1680, Movement by Thomas Tompion (English); case by Nathaniel Delander (English), Case and dial: silver; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1512)
University Scepter, before 1478, Germany (possibly Rostock or Lübeck), Cast and raised silver and silver gilt on steel core (2011.358)
Visored sallet, ca. 1470–85, Hans Blarer the Younger, German/Swiss (Basel), Steel (29.158.11)
War Hat (chapel-de-fer), ca. 1475, Western European (probably Burgundy), Steel (04.3.228)
Watch in the form of a skull, ca. 1640–50, Movement by Isaac Penard (Swiss), Case and dial: silver, partly nielloed, with a single silver hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel (17.190.1575)
Watch, ca. 1630–40, Movement by Johann Possdorffer, or Poestdorffer (Bohemian or German), Case: rock crystal and gold, partly enameled; Dial: painted enamel on gold, with a single gold hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1525)
Watch, ca. 1645–50, Movement by Jacques Goullons (French), Case and dial: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1557)
Watch, ca. 1650, Movement by Nicolas Bernard (French), Case: enameled gold; Dial: enameled gold, with a single gilded brass hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1622)
Watch, ca. 1650–60, Movement by Charles Bobinet (Swiss), Case: pink agate, mounted in enameled gold; Dial: painted enamel with a single gilded-brass hand; Movement: gilded brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1617)
Watch, ca. 1660–70, Movement by F. L. Meybom, or Maybon; case attributed to Isaac Bergeron, dit d'Argent (French), Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver; Case: blued steel, gilded brass, rock crystal, silver, and diamonds; Dial: painted enamel and basse-taille enamel on gold, with a single gold hand (17.190.1600)
Watch, ca. 1675–80, Movement by Johannes Van Ceulen the Elder (Dutch); case and dial probably by Josias Belle (French), Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver; Case and dial: enameled gold and painted enamel on gold (17.190.1417)
Watch, ca. 1680, Movement probably by Nicolas Gribelin (French), Case: painted enamel on gold; Dial: painted enamel with champlevé gold chapter ring; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1559)
Watch, probably ca. 1670, Movement by Nikolaus II Rugendas (German), Case: gold, enameled and set with gemstones; Dial: painted enamel on gold, with a single gold hand; Movement: glided brass and steel, partly blued (17.190.1520)
Watchcase, ca. 1686–88, Case by Jean-Pierre Huaud (Swiss); movement by Johann G. Racine (Swiss, active Berlin), Case: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1522)
Watchcase, ca. 1700, Case and dial by Jean-Pierre Huaud (Swiss) and Amy Huaud (Swiss); movement by Pieter Klock (Dutch), Case and dial: painted enamel on gold; Movement: gilded brass, steel, partly blued, and silver (17.190.1436)
Wheel-lock Rifle, ca. 1680–90, Johann Michael Maucher (German), German (Schwäbisch Gmünd), Engraved steel; wood, inlaid with ivory and mother-of-pearl (42.50.8)
Writing desk (bureau brisé), ca. 1685, Alexandre-Jean Oppenordt (Dutch, active France), maker; Jean Berain (French), engraver, France (Paris), Oak, pine, and walnut veneered with ebony, rosewood, and marquetry of engraved brass on tortoiseshell; gilt bronze, steel (1986.365.3)
Yatagan, ca. 1525–30, Made by the Workshop of Ahmed Tekelü, Turkey (Possibly Iranian, active Istanbul), Steel, walrus ivory, gold, silver, rubies, turquoise, pearl (1993.14)