The list that follows is meant as a complement to the Timeline of Art History, not as a comprehensive historical reference. It presents a simplified picture of dynastic succession in a small number of large European principalities. The names of numerous princes who ruled smaller states are not to be found here, nor are the names of many pretenders, regents, and fully legitimate monarchs whose reigns were short or ambitions otherwise stifled. The abridged list includes above all those kings and queens whose rule affected the arts of Europe in important ways and whose names are most commonly raised in art historical discussion.
Department of European Paintings. “List of Rulers of Europe.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/euru/hd_euru.htm (originally published October 2003, last revised April 2007)