List of Rulers of Europe

See works of art
  • Augustus the Strong
    1982.60.318
  • Charles I
    39.13.7
  • Queen Victoria
    14.126.1
  • Doorway from Moutiers-Saint-Jean
    32.147
  • Scenes from the Legend of Saint Vincent of Saragossa and the History of His Relics
    24.167a-k
  • King Louis IX Carrying the Crown of Thorns
    37.173.3
  • Seasons and Elements (Air) (set of four)
    46.43.4
  • King, from a group of Donor Figures including a King, Queen, and Prince
    17.190.387,388,392
  • François I (1494–1547), King of France
    41.100.245
  • Henri II, King of France, Between France and Fame
    25.2.93
  • Portrait of Napoleon I
    43.99
  • The Past, the Present, and the Future (Le passé – Le présent – LAvenir), published in La Caricature, no. 166, Jan. 9, 1834
    41.16.1
  • Napoléon III (1808–1873), Emperor of the French
    1974.297
  • Plaque with Christ Receiving Magdeburg Cathedral from Emperor Otto I
    41.100.157
  • The Investiture of Bishop Harold as Duke of Franconia
    71.121
  • Presentation Coin (Doppelguldiner) Showing Maximilian I (1459–1519)
    26.261.14
  • Allegory of Virtues and Vices at the Court of Charles V
    17.190.745
  • Maximillian II, Holy Roman Emperor (1527–1576)
    1989.12.2,3
  • Portrait of Rudolph II
    51.501.6469
  • Pope Innocent X (Giovanni Battista Pamphili, reigned 1644–55)
    08.49
  • Pope Alexander VII (1599–1667)
    57.20
  • Pope Benedict XIV (Prospero Lambertini, 1675–1758)
    2009.145
  • Emperor Charles V (1500–58) and his Son Philip II of Spain (1527–98)
    38.150.9
  • Philip IV (1605-1665), King of Spain
    14.40.639
  • The Empress Elizabeth of Russia (1709-1762) on Horseback, Attended by a Page
    1978.554.2
  • Catherine II (The Great), Empress of Russia
    52.189.11
  • Watch
    1983.183.5

The list that follows is meant as a complement to the Timeline of Art History, not as a comprehensive historical reference. It presents a simplified picture of dynastic succession in a small number of large European principalities. The names of numerous princes who ruled smaller states are not to be found here, nor are the names of many pretenders, regents, and fully legitimate monarchs whose reigns were short or ambitions otherwise stifled. The abridged list includes above all those kings and queens whose rule affected the arts of Europe in important ways and whose names are most commonly raised in art historical discussion.

Central Europe
Holy Roman Empire (see below for a list of emperors)
962–1806
Wettin Electors of Saxony
1423–1806
Wittelsbach Electors of Bavaria
1623–1806
Hohenzollern Electors of Brandenburg
1415–1701
Poland
elected kings
1572–1795
Zygmunt III Wasa (Sigismund III Vasa)
1587–1632
Vladislav IV Wasa (Wladyslaw IV Vasa)
1632–1648
Jan II Kasimierz Wasa (John II Casimir Vasa)
1648–1668
Michael Wisniowiecki
1669–1673
Jan III Sobieski (John III Sobieski)
1674–1696
Augustus II, the Strong (1982.60.318)
1697–1704, 1709–1733
Augustus III
1733–1763
Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski
1764–1795
partitions of Poland
1772, 1793, 1795
divided under Habsburg, Prussian, and Russian rule
1795–1867
Kingdom of Prussia
1701–1867
Hohenzollerns
1701–1797
Friedrich I (Frederick I)
1701–1713
Friedrich Wilhelm I (Frederick William I)
1713–1740
Friedrich II, der Grosse (Frederick II, the Great)
1740–1786
Friedrich Wilhelm II (Frederick William II)
1786–1797
Romania and Moldova
England
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Wessex (centered in southern England)
519–871
Cerdic
519–534
Cynric
534–560
Ceawlin
560–592
Ceol
592–597
Ceolwulf
597–611
Cynegils
611–642
Cenwalh
642–672
Seaxburh
672–674
Aescwine
674–676
Centwine
676–684
Ceadwalla
685–688
Ine
688–726
Aethelheard
726–740
Cuthred
740–756
Cynewulf
757–786
Berhtric
786–802
Egbert
802–839
Aethelwulf
839–858
Aethelbald
858–860
Aethelberht
860–866
Aethelred
866–871
The kings of Wessex, supreme throughout England, become the first royal house of England: see England.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Kent (centered in southeastern England)
455–827
Hengest
455–488
Aesc
488–512
Octa
512–522
Eormenric
522–560
Aethelbert I
560–616
Eadbald
616–640
Earconbert
640–644
Egbert I
664–673
Hlothere
673–685
Oswine
688–690
Wihtred
690–725
Aethelbert II
725–762
Sigered
762–764
Egbert II
765–784
Eadberht II
796–798
Cuthred
798–807
Baldred
823–825
The kings of Wessex, who have controlled Kent periodically during the eight and ninth centuries, secure it for good as of 827.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria (centered in northern England, bordering Scotland)
592–841
Aethelfrith
592–616
Edwin
616–633
St. Oswald
634–642
Oswiu
642–670
Ecgfrith
670–685
Aldfrith
686–705
Osred I
706–716
Cenred
716–718
Osric
718–729
Ceolwulf
729–737
Eadberht
737–758
Aethelwald
759–765
Alhred
765–774
Aethelred I
774–779, 790–796
Aelfwald I
779–788
Eardwulf
796–808
Eanred
809–841
The kings of Wessex control Northumbria after 827, following a period of disorder and decline after Eadberht's demise.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia (centered in central and western England, bordering Wales)
626–919
Penda
626–655
Wulfhere
658–675
Aethelred I
675–704
Cenred
704–709
Ceolred
709–716
Aethelbald
716–757
Offa
757–796
Cenwulf
796–821
Ceolwulf
821–823
Beornwulf
823–825
Ludeca
825–827
Wiglaf
827–840
Berhtwulf
840–852
Burgred
852–874
Ceolwulf I
874–879
Aethelred II
879–911
Aethelflaed
911–918
Aelfwyn
918–919
Mercia is annexed by the kings of Wessex.
England
Anglo-Saxons
802–1016
Alfred, the Great
871–899
Edward, the Elder
899–924
Aethelstan
924–939
Edgar
959–975
Aethelred II, the Unready
978–1016
Danes
1016–1042
Canute (Knut), the Great
1016–1035
Harold I, called Harold Harefoot
1035–1040
Hardecanute
1040–1042
Anglo-Saxons
1042–1066
Edward, the Confessor
1042–1066
Harold II
1066
Normans
1066–1154
William I, the Conqueror
1066–1087
William II, called William Rufus
1087–1100
Henry I
1100–1135
Stephen
1135–1154
Plantagenets
1154–1399
Henry II
1154–1189
Richard I, the Lion-Hearted
1189–1199
John I
1199–1216
Henry III
1216–1272
Edward I
1272–1307
Edward II
1307–1327
Edward III
1327–1377
Richard II
1377–1399
Lancastrians
1399–1471
Henry IV
1399–1413
Henry V
1413–1422
Henry VI
1422–1461, 1470–1471
Yorkists
1461–1485
Edward IV
1461–1483
Edward V
1483
Richard III
1483–1485
Tudors
1485–1603
Henry VII
1485–1509
Henry VIII
1509–1547
Edward VI
1547–1553
Mary I, called Mary Tudor or Bloody Mary
1553–1558
1558–1603
Stuarts
1603–1714
James I
1603–1625
Charles I (39.13.7)
1625–1649
Charles II
1660–1685
James II
1685–1688
William III and Mary II
1689–1694
William III
1694–1702
Anne
1702–1714
Hanoverians
1714–1901
George I
1714–1727
George II
1727–1760
George III
1760–1820
George IV
1820–1830
William IV, the Sailor-King or Silly Billy
1830–1837
1837–1901
Saxe-Coburgs
1901–1910
Edward VII
1901–1910
Windsors
1910–present
George V
1910–1936
Edward VIII
1936
George VI
1936–1952
Elizabeth II
1952–present
France
Kingdom of the Franks
460–814 A.D.
Childeric I
460–482 A.D.
Chlodovech (Clovis) I (32.147)
482–511 A.D.
Chlothar I (32.147)
511–561
Charibert I
561–584
Chlothar II
584–629
Dagobert I
629–639
St. Sigebert
639–656
Childebert (24.167a–k)
656–661
Childeric II
662–675
Theuderic III
676–690
Chlodovech (Clovis) III
690–694
Childebert III
694–711
Theuderic IV
721–737
Childeric III
743–751
Pippin
754–768
Charles (Charlemagne)
768–814
The Kingdom of the Franks ends when Charlemagne raises it to imperial stature in 800—thereafter, see the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Duchy of Aquitaine (centered in western France)
898–1204
William I, the Pious
898–918
William II, the Younger
918–926
Ebalus the Bastard
927–934
William III, the Towhead
934–963
William IV, Fierabras (the Strong-Armed)
963–993
William V, the Great
993–1030
William VI, the Fat
1030–1038
Eudes (Odo)
1038–1039
William VII, the Brave
1039–1058
William VIII
1058–1086
William IX, the Troubadour
1086–1126
William X, the Toulousan
1126–1137
Eleanor
1137–1204
The duchy is united with England upon Eleanor's marriage to Henry II of England.
Duchy of Brittany (centered in western France)
937–1514
House of Nantes
937–990
Alan I, Wrybeard
937–952
Drogo
952–958
Hoël
960–981
Guérech
981–988
Alan II
988–990
House of Rennes
990–1066
Conan I, the Crooked
990–992
Geoffrey I
992–1008
Alan III
1008–1040
Conan II
1040–1066
House of Cornouaille
1066–1166
Hoël
1066–1084
Alan IV, Fergant (the Iron-Gloved)
1084–1112
Conan III, the Fat
1112–1148
Eudo of Porho't
1148–1156
Conan IV, the Younger
1156–1166
House of Plantagenet
Geoffrey II
1166–1186
House of Dreux
1187–1364
Arthur I (husband of Alix, daughter of Geoffrey II)
1187–1221
John I, the Red
1221–1286
John II
1286–1305
Arthur II
1305–1312
John III, the Good
1312–1341
Charles of Blois
1341–1364
House of Montfort
1364–1514
John IV, the Conqueror
1364–1399
John V
1399–1442
Francis I
1442–1450
Peter II
1450–1457
Francis II
1458–1488
Anne
1488–1514
The duchy is united with France upon Anne's marriage to Louis XII of France.
Duchy of Burgundy (centered in eastern France)
1162–1477
Hugh III
1162–1193
Odo (Eudes) III
1193–1218
Hugh IV
1218–1272
Robert II
1272–1309
Odo (Eudes) IV
1315–1350
Philip de Rouvres
1350–1361
Philip the Bold
1363–1404
John the Fearless
1404–1419
Philip the Good
1419–1467
Charles the Bold
1467–1477
The dynasty ends with a female heir, and the duchy reverts to the French crown.
County of Provence (centered in southeastern France)
1112–1481
House of Barcelona
1112–1245
Raymond Berengar I
1112–1131
Berengar Raymond I
1131–1144
Raymond Berengar II
1144–1166
Alfonso I
1166–1173
Raymond Berengar IV
1173–1181
Sancho
1181–1185
Alfonso II
1185–1209
Raymond Berengar V
1209–1245
Capetian House of Anjou
1246–1382
Charles I
1246–1285
Charles II, the Lame
1285–1309
Robert the Wise
1309–1343
Joan
1343–1382
Valois House of Anjou
1382–1481
Louis I
1382–1384
Louis II
1384–1417
Louis III
1417–1434
René the Good
1434–1480
Charles III, of Maine
1480–1481
Provence becomes French territory according to the terms of Charles III's will.
County of Toulouse (centered in southwestern France)
844–1271
Fredelon
844–852
Raymond I
852–863
Bernard I
864–872
Bernard II, Hairfoot, of Auvergne
872–885
Eudes (Odo)
885–918
Raymond II
918–923
Raymond Pons
923–942
Raymond III, of Rouergue
942–961
Raymond IV
961–978
William III, Taillefer
978–1037
Pons
1037–1060
William IV
1060–1093
Raymond V, of St. Gilles
1093–1105
Bertram
1105–1112
Alfonso Jordan
1112–1148
Raymond VI
1148–1194
Raymond VII
1194–1222
Raymond VIII
1222–1249
Alfonso of Poitiers
1249–1271
The county is united with France upon the death of Joan, daughter of Raymond VIII and wife of Alfonso of Poitiers, son of Louis VIII of France.
France
Capetians
987–1328
Hugues Capet (Hugh Capet)
987–996
Robert II, le Pieux (the Pious)
996–1031
Henri I (Henry I)
1031–1060
Philippe I (Philip I)
1059–1108
Louis VI, le Gros (the Fat)
1108–1137
Louis VII, le Jeune (the Young)
1137–1180
Philippe Auguste (Philippe II)
1179–1223
Louis VIII, le Lion
1223–1226
Louis IX (St. Louis) (37.173.3)
1226–1270
Philippe III, le Hardi (Philip III, the Bold)
1270–1285
Philippe IV, le Bel (Philip IV, the Fair)
1285–1314
Louis X, le Hutin (the Stubborn)
1314–1316
Philippe V, le Long (Philip V, the Tall)
1316–1322
Charles IV, le Bel (the Fair)
1322–1328
1328–1589
Philippe VI (Philip VI) (17.190.387,388,392)
1328–1350
Jean II, le Bon (John II, the Good)
1350–1364
Charles V, le Sage (the Wise)
1364–1380
Charles VI, le Bien-Aimé (the Well-Beloved)
1380–1422
Charles VII
1422–1461
Louis XI
1461–1483
Charles VIII
1483–1498
Louis XII
1498–1515
François I (Francis I) (41.100.245)
1515–1547
Henri II (Henry II) (25.2.93)
1547–1559
François II (Francis II)
1559–1560
Charles IX
1560–1574
Henri III (Henry III)
1574–1589
Bourbons
1589–1792
Henri IV (Henry IV, called Henry of Navarre)
1589–1610
Louis XIII
1610–1643
Louis XIV, le Roi Soleil (the Sun King) (46.43.4)
1643–1715
Louis XV, le Bien-Aimé (the Well-Beloved)
1715–1774
Louis XVI
1774–1792
First Empire
1804–1814
Napoleon I (43.99)
1804–1814
Bourbons
1814–1830
Louis XVIII
1814–1824
Charles X
1824–1830
Orléans
1830–1848
Louis-Philippe, le Roi-Citoyen (the Citizen King) (41.16.1)
1830–1848
Second Empire
1852–1870
Napoleon III, called Louis-Napoléon (1974.297)
1852–1870
Holy Roman Empire
800–911
Charlemagne (Charles I, the Great)
800–814
Louis I, le Pieux (the Pious)
814–840
Lothair I (in the Western part of the empire)
840–855
Ludwig II, der Deutsche (Louis II, the German) (in the Eastern part of the empire)
843–876
Ludwig II (Louis II)
855–875
Charles II, le Chauve (the Bald)
875–877
Charles III, le Gros (the Fat)
881–887
Arnulf
887–899
Ludwig III, das Kind (Louis III, the Child)
899–911
Saxons
911–1024
Konrad I (Conrad I)
911–918
Heinrich I, der Vogelfänger (Henry I, the Fowler)
919–936
Otto I, the Great (41.100.157)
936–973
Otto II
973–983
Otto III
983–1002
Heinrich II, der Heilige (Henry II, the Saint)
1002–1024
Salians
1024–1137
Konrad II (Conrad II)
1024–1039
Heinrich III (Henry III)
1039–1056
Heinrich IV (Henry IV)
1056–1106
Heinrich V (Henry V)
1106–1125
Lothair II
1125–1137
Hohenstaufens
1138–1254
Konrad III (Conrad III)
1138–1152
Friedrich I (Frederick I), Barbarossa (71.121)
1152–1190
Heinrich VI (Henry VI)
1190–1197
Otto IV of Brunswick
1198–1215
Philipp (Philip) of Swabia
1198–1208
Friedrich II (Frederick II)
1212–1250
Konrad IV (Conrad IV)
1251–1254
Luxemburgs, and others
1273–1437
Rudolf I (Habsburg)
1273–1291
Adolf of Nassau
1292–1298
Albrecht I (Albert I) (Habsburg)
1298–1308
Heinrich I (Henry VII) of Luxembourg
1308–1313
Ludwig IV der Bayer (Louis IV of Bavaria)
1314–1347
Charles IV of Luxembourg
1347–1378
Wenceslas of Bohemia
1378–1400
Ruprecht Klem (Rupert) of the Palatinate
1400–1410
Sigismund of Luxembourg
1410–1437
Albrecht II (Albert II)
1438–1439
Friedrich III (Frederick III)
1440–1493
Maximilian I (26.261.14)
1493–1519
Charles V (17.190.745)
1519–1556
Ferdinand I
1556–1564
Maximilian II (1989.12.2)
1564–1576
Rudolph II (51.501.6469)
1576–1612
Matthias
1612–1619
Ferdinand II
1619–1637
Ferdinand III
1637–1657
Leopold I
1658–1705
Joseph I
1705–1711
Charles VI
1711–1740
Maria Theresa
1740–1780
Joseph II
1765–1790
Leopold II
1790–1792
Franz II (Francis II)
1792–1806
Papacy (from John VIII, first pope to use the title officially)
John VIII
872–882
Marinus I
882–884
St. Hadrian III
884–885
Stephen VI
885–891
Formosus
891–896
Boniface VI
896
Stephen VII
896–897
John IX
898–900
Benedict IV
900–903
Sergius III
904–911
Anastasius III
911–913
John X
914–928
Stephen VIII
929–931
John XI
931–935
Leo VII
936–939
Stephen IX
939–942
Marinus II
942–946
Agapitus II
946–955
John XII
955–964
Leo VIII
963–965
John XIII
965–972
Benedict VI
973–974
Benedict VII
974–983
John XIV
983–984
Boniface VII
984–985
John XV
985–996
Gregory V
996–999
Sylvester II
999–1003
John XVII
1003
John XVIII
1004–1009
Sergius IV
1009–1012
Benedict VIII
1012–1024
John XIX
1024–1032
Benedict IX
1032–1044
Sylvester III
1045
Gregory VI
1045–1046
Clement II
1046–1047
Damasus II
1048–1049
St. Leo IX
1049–1054
Victor II
1055–1057
Stephen X
1057–1058
Nicholas II
1059–1061
Alexander II
1061–1073
St. Gregory VII
1073–1085
Bd. Victor III
1086–1087
Bd. Urban II
1088–1099
Paschal I
1099–1118
Gelasius II
1118–1119
Calixtus II
1119–1124
Honorius II
1124–1130
Innocent II
1130–1143
Celestine II
1143–1144
Lucius II
1144–1145
Bd. Eugenius III
1145–1153
Anastasius IV
1153–1154
Hadrian IV
1154–1159
Alexander III
1159–1181
Lucius III
1181–1185
Urban III
1185–1187
Gregory VIII
1187
Clement III
1187–1191
Celestine III
1191–1198
Innocent III
1198–1216
Honorius III
1216–1227
Gregory IX
1227–1241
Celestine IV
1241
Innocent IV
1243–1254
Alexander IV
1254–1261
Urban IV
1261–1264
Clement IV
1265–1268
Gregory X
1271–1276
Innocent V
1276
Hadrian V
1276
John XXI
1276–1277
Nicholas III
1277–1280
Martin IV
1281–1285
Honorius IV
1285–1287
Nicholas IV
1288–1292
St. Celestine V
1294
Boniface VIII
1294–1303
Bd. Benedict XI
1303–1304
Clement V
1305–1314
John XXII (ruled from Avignon)
1316–1334
Benedict XII (ruled from Avignon)
1334–1342
Clement VI (ruled from Avignon)
1342–1352
Innocent VI (ruled from Avignon)
1352–1362
Urban V (ruled from Avignon)
1362–1370
Gregory XI, Pierre-Roger de Beaufort
1370–1378
Urban VI, Bartolomeo Prignano
1378–1389
Boniface IX, Pietro Tomacelli
1389–1404
Innocent VII, Cosimo de' Migliorati
1404–1406
Gregory XII, Angelo Correr
1406–1415
Martin V, Oddo Colonna
1417–1431
Eugenius IV, Gabriele Condulmero
1431–1447
Nicholas V, Tommaso Parentucelli
1447–1455
Calixtus III, Alfonso de Borgia
1455–1458
Pius II, Enea Silvio Piccolomini
1458–1464
Paul II, Pietro Barbo
1464–1471
Sixtus IV, Francesco della Rovere
1471–1484
Innocent VIII, Giovanni Battista Cibò
1484–1492
Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia
1492–1503
Pius III, Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini
1503
Julius II, Giuliano della Rovere
1503–1513
Leo X, Giovanni de' Medici
1513–1521
Adrian VI, Adrian Florensz Boeyens
1522–1523
Clement VII, Giulio de' Medici
1523–1534
Paul III, Alessandro Farnese
1534–1549
Julius III, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte
1550–1555
Marcellus II, Marcello Cervini
1555
Paul IV, Gian Pietro Carafa
1555–1559
Pius IV, Giovanni Angelo de' Medici
1559–1565
St. Pius V, Antonio Ghislieri
1566–1572
Gregory XIII, Ugo Buoncompagni
1572–1585
Sixtus V, Felice Peretti
1585–1590
Urban VII, Giambattista Castagna
1590
Gregory XIV, Niccolò Sfondrato
1590–1591
Innocent IX, Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti
1591
Clement VIII, Ippolito Aldobrandini
1592–1605
Leo XI, Alessandro de' Medici
1605
Paul V, Camillo Borghese
1605–1621
Gregory XV, Alessandro Ludovisi
1621–1623
Urban VIII, Maffeo Barberini
1623–1644
Innocent X, Giovanni Battista Pamphilj (08.49)
1644–1655
Alexander VII, Fabio Chigi (57.20)
1655–1667
Clement IX, Giulio Rospigliosi
1667–1669
Clement X, Emilio Altieri
1670–1676
Innocent XI, Benedetto Odescalchi
1676–1689
Alexander VIII, Pietro Ottoboni
1689–1691
Innocent XII, Antonio Pignatelli
1691–1700
Clement XI, Giovanni Francesco Albani
1700–1721
Innocent XIII, Michelangelo Conti
1721–1724
Benedict XIII, Pierfrancesco Orsini
1724–1730
Clement XII, Lorenzo Corsini
1730–1740
Benedict XIV, Prospero Lambertini (2009.145)
1740–1758
Clement XIII, Carlo Rezzonico
1758–1769
Clement XIV, Giovanni Ganganelli
1769–1774
Pius VI, Giovanni Angelo Braschi
1775–1799
Pius VII, Barnaba Gregorio Chiaramonti
1800–1823
Leo XII, Annibale della Genga
1823–1829
Pius VIII, Francesco Saverio Castiglioni
1829–1830
Gregory XVI, Bartolomeo Cappellari
1831–1846
Pius IX, Giovanni Mastai-Ferretti
1846–1878
Leo XIII, Gioacchino Pecci
1878–1903
St. Pius X, Giuseppe Sarto
1903–1914
Benedict XV, Giacomo della Chiesa
1914–1922
Pius XI, Achille Ratti
1922–1939
Pius XII, Eugenio Pacelli
1939–1958
John XXIII, Angelo Roncalli
1958–1963
Paul VI, Giovanni Battista Montini
1963–1978
John Paul I, Albino Luciani
1978
John Paul II, Karol Wojtyla
1978–2005
Benedict XVI, Joseph Ratzinger
2005–2013
Francis I, Jorge Mario Bergoglio
2013–present
Iberian Peninsula
Visigothic Kingdom
391–720 A.D.
Alaric I
391–410 A.D.
Athaulf
410–415 A.D.
Wallia
415–418 A.D.
Theodoric
418–451 A.D.
Thorismund
451–453 A.D.
Euric
466–484 A.D.
Alaric II
484–507 A.D.
Gesalic
507–511
Amalaric
511–531
Theudis
531–548
Achila I
548–555
Athanagild
555–567
Liuva I
567–572
Leovigild (sole king after 572)
568–586
Reccared I
586–601
Sisebut
612–621
Svinthala
621–631
Sisenand
631–636
Chindaswinth
642–653
Recceswinth
653–672
Wamba
672–680
Erwig
680–687
Egica
687–702
Wittiza
702–710
Roderic
710–711
Achila II
711–714
Ardo
714–720
Muslim conquest brings kingdom to an end.
Kingdom of Aragon (northeastern Spain)
1035–1516
Ramiro I
1035–1063
Sancho I Ramírez
1063–1094
Pedro I (Peter I)
1094–1104
Alfonso I, el Batallador (the Battler)
1104–1134
Ramiro II, el Monje (the Monk)
1134–1137
Petronila
1137–1174
Alfonso II, el Casto (the Chaste)
1164–1196
Pedro II (Peter II)
1196–1213
Jaime I, el Conquistador (James I, the Conqueror)
1214–1276
Pedro III, el Grande (Peter III, the Great)
1276–1285
Alfonso III, el Liberal (the Generous)
1285–1291
Jaime II (James II)
1291–1327
Alfonso IV, el Benigno (the Benign)
1327–1336
Pedro IV, el Ceremonioso (Peter IV, the Ceremonious)
1336–1387
Juan I (John I)
1387–1395
Martin I
1395–1410
interregnum
1410–1412
Fernando I (Ferdinand I)
1410–1416
Alfonso V, el Magnánimo (the Magnanimous)
1416–1458
Juan II (John II)
1458–1479
Fernando II, el Católico (Ferdinand II, the Catholic)
1479–1516
Kingdom of Castile (central Spain)
1029–1555
Sancho I, el Mayor (the Great)
1029–1035
Fernando I, el Magno (Ferdinand I, the Great)
1035–1065
Sancho II
1065–1072
Alfonso VI, el Bravo (the Valiant)
1072–1109
Urraca
1109–1126
Alfonso VII
1126–1157
Sancho III
1157–1158
Alfonso VIII
1158–1214
Enrique I (Henry I)
1214–1217
Fernando III, el Santo (Ferdinand III, the Saint)
1217–1252
Alfonso X, el Sabio (the Learned)
1252–1284
Sancho IV
1284–1295
Fernando IV, el Emplazado (Ferdinand IV, the Summoned)
1295–1312
Alfonso XI
1312–1350
Pedro, el Cruel (Peter, the Cruel)
1350–1369
Enrique II (Henry II)
1369–1379
Juan I (John I)
1379–1390
Enrique III, el Doliente (Henry III, the Sufferer)
1390–1406
Juan II (John II)
1406–1454
Enrique IV (Henry IV)
1454–1474
Isabel I, la Católica (Isabella I, the Catholic)
1474–1504
Juana I, la Loca (Joan / Joanna I, the Mad)
1504–1555
Spain
Carlos I (Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire) (17.190.745)
1516–1556
Felipe II (Philip II) (38.150.9)
1556–1598
Felipe III (Philip III)
1598–1621
Felipe IV (Philip IV) (14.40.639)
1621–1665
Carlos II (Charles II)
1665–1700
Bourbons (Borbóns)
1700–1808
Felipe V (Philip V) (abdicated)
1700–1724
Luis I (Louis I)
1724
Felipe V (Philip V) (reinstated)
1724–1746
Fernando VI (Ferdinand VI)
1746–1759
Carlos III (Charles III)
1759–1788
Carlos IV (Charles IV)
1788–1808
Napoleonic Rule
1808–1814
Joseph Bonaparte
1808–1814
Bourbons (Borbóns)
1808–present
Fernando VII (Ferdinand VII)
1808, 1814–1833
Isabel II (Isabella II)
1833–1868
Amadeo I, of Savoy
1870–1873
Alfonso XII
1874–1885
Alfonso XIII
1886–1931
Juan Carlos
1975–2014
Felipe VI (Philip VI)
2014–present
Italian Peninsula
Langobardic Kingdom (centered in northern Italy)
569–774
Alboin
569–572
Cleph
572–574
Authari (first husband of Theodelinda)
584–590
Agilulf (second husband of Theodelinda)
590–615
Adalwald
616–626
Ariwald
626–636
Rothari
636–652
Aripert I
653–661
Grimwald
662–671
Perctarit
671–688
Cunipert
688–700
Aripert II
701–712
Liutprand
712–744
Ratchis
744–749, 756–757
Aistulf
749–756
Desiderius
757–774
Invasion of the Franks brings kingdom to an end.
Doges of Venice
Orso Ipato
726–737
Teodato Ipato
742–755
Domenico Monegario
756–764
Maurizio Galbaio
764–787
Giovanni Galbaio
787–803
Obelerio degli Antenori
803–810
Agnello Particiaco
810–827
Giustiniano Particiaco
827–829
Giovanni Particiaco I
829–836
Pietro Tradonico
836–864
Orso Particiaco I
864–881
Giovanni Particiaco II
881–887
Pietro Candiano I
887
Pietro Tribuno
888–911
Orso Particiaco II
911–932
Pietro Candiano II
932–939
Pietro Particiaco
939–942
Pietro Candiano III
942–959
Pietro Candiano IV
959–976
Pietro Orseolo I
976–978
Tribuno Memmo
979–991
Pietro Orseolo II
991–1009
Otto Orseolo
1009–1026
Pietro Centranico
1026–1030
Domenico Flabinico
1031–1041
Domenico Contarini I
1041–1071
Domenico Silvo
1071–1084
Vitale Falier
1084–1095
Vitale Michiel I
1095–1110
Ordelafo Falier
1101–1118
Domenico Michiel
1118–1130
Pietro Polani
1130–1148
Domenico Morosini
1148–1155
Vitale Michiel II
1155–1172
Sebastiano Ziani
1172–1178
Orio Mastropiero
1178–1192
Enrico Dandolo
1192–1205
Pietro Ziani
1205–1229
Jacopo Tiepolo
1229–1249
Marin Morosini
1249–1253
Renier Zeno
1253–1268
Lorenzo Tiepolo
1268–1275
Jacopo Contarini
1275–1280
Giovanni Dandolo
1280–1289
Pietro Gradenigo
1289–1311
Giovanni Soranzo
1312–1328
Francesco Dandolo
1329–1339
Bartolomeo Gradenigo
1339–1342
Andrea Dandolo
1343–1354
Marino Falier
1354–1355
Giovanni Gradenigo
1355–1356
Giovanni Dolfin
1356–1361
Lorenzo Celsi
1361–1365
Marco Cornaro
1365–1368
Andrea Contarini
1368–1382
Antonio Venier
1382–1400
Michele Steno
1400–1413
Tommaso Mocenigo
1414–1423
Francesco Foscari
1423–1457
Pasquale Malipiero
1457–1462
Cristoforo Moro
1462–1471
Niccolò Tron
1471–1473
Niccolò Marcello
1473–1474
Pietro Mocenigo
1474–1476
Andrea Vendramin
1476–1478
Giovanni Mocenigo
1478–1485
Marco Barbarigo
1485–1486
Agostino Barbarigo
1486–1501
Leonardo Loredan
1501–1521
Antonio Grimani
1521–1523
Andrea Gritti
1523–1538
Pietro Lando
1539–1545
Francesco Donato
1545–1553
Marcantonio Trevisan
1553–1554
Francesco Venier
1554–1556
Lorenzo Priuli
1556–1559
Girolamo Priuli
1559–1567
Pietro Loredan
1567–1570
Alvise Mocenigo I
1570–1577
Niccolò da Ponte
1578–1585
Pasquale Cigogna
1585–1595
Marino Grimani
1595–1605
Leonardo Donato
1605–1612
Marcantonio Memmo
1612–1615
Giovanni Bembo
1615–1618
Antonio Priuli
1618–1623
Francesco Contarini
1623–1624
Giovanni Cornaro I
1625–1629
Niccolò Contarini
1630–1631
Francesco Erizzo
1631–1646
Francesco Molin
1646–1655
Carlo Contarini
1655–1656
Bertuccio Valier
1656–1658
Giovanni Pesaro
1658–1659
Domenico Contarini II
1659–1675
Niccolò Sagredo
1675–1676
Marcantonio Giustiniani
1684–1688
Francesco Morosini
1688–1694
Silvestro Valier
1694–1700
Alvise Mocenigo II
1700–1709
Giovanni Cornaro II
1709–1722
Alvise Mocenigo III
1722–1732
Carlo Ruzzini
1732–1735
Alvise Pisani
1733–1741
Pietro Grimani
1741–1752
Francesco Loredan
1752–1762
Marco Foscarini
1762–1763
Alvise Mocenigo IV
1763–1778
Paolo Renier
1779–1789
Ludovico Monin
1789–1797
The Venetian Republic and the office of Doge come to an end with the French invasion of 1797.
Low Countries
Duchy of Brabant
1106–1430
House of Louvain
1106–1355
Godfrey I, the Bearded
1106–1128
Walram II, of Limbourg
1128–1139
Godfrey II
1139–1142
Godfrey III
1142–1190
Henry I
1190–1235
Henry II
1235–1248
Henry III
1248–1261
Henry IV
1261–1267
John I, the Victorious
1267–1294
John II
1294–1312
John III
1312–1355
House of Luxemburg
1355–1406
Wenceslas
1355–1383
Johanna (daughter of John III and wife of Wenceslas)
1383–1406
House of Burgundy
1406–1430
Anthony
1406–1415
John IV
1415–1427
Philip of St. Pol
1427–1430
The duchy is united with Burgundy as of Philip's reign.
Russia
Muscovite Princes
1462–1598
Ivan III, the Great
1462–1505
Vasily III (Basil III)
1505–1533
Ivan IV, the Terrible
1533–1584
Fyodor I Ivanovich (Theodore I Ivanovich)
1584–1598
Romanoff Czars
1613–1917
Michael (Mikhail) Romanoff
1613–1645
Alexis (Alexei) I
1645–1676
Catherine (Yekaterina) I
1725–1727
Peter (Pyotr) II
1727–1730
Anna Ivanovna
1730–1740
Elizabeth (Yelisaveta) Petrovna (1978.554.2)
1741–1762
Catherine (Yekatrina) II, the Great (52.189.11)
1762–1796
Paul (Pavel)
1796–1801
Alexander (Aleksandr) I
1801–1825
Nicholas (Nikolai) I (1983.183.5)
1825–1855
Alexander (Aleksandr) II
1855–1881
Alexander (Aleksandr) III
1881–1894
Nicholas (Nikolai) II
1894–1917
Scandinavia
Kingdom of Denmark (centered in the Danish peninsula)
940–1396
House of Jutland
940–1046
Harald I Bluetooth
940–986
Svend I Forkbeard
986–1014
Harald II
1014–1018
Knud I, the Great
1019–1035
Hardeknud
1035–1042
Magnus the Good
1042–1046
House of Svend Estridsen
1046–1375
Svend II Estridsen
1046–1074
Harald III
1074–1080
St. Knud
1080–1086
Oluf I
1086–1095
Erik I, the Evergood
1095–1103
Niels
1104–1134
Erik II, the Memorable
1134–1137
Erik III, the Lamb
1137–1146
Knud III
1146–1157
Valdemar I, the Great
1157–1182
Knud IV
1182–1202
Valdemar II, the Victorious
1202–1241
Erik IV Ploughpenny
1241–1250
Christopher I
1252–1259
Erik V
1259–1286
Erik VI
1286–1319
Christopher II
1320–1326, 1330–1332
Valdemar III
1326–1330
Valdemar IV
1340–1375
House of Norway
1376–1396
Oluf II
1376–1387
Margaret I
1387–1396
Kalmar Union (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden)
House of Pomerania
Erik VII
1396–1439
House of Palatinate
Christopher III of Bavaria
1440–1448
House of Oldenburg
1448–1523
Christian I
1448–1481
John
1483–1513
Christian II
1513–1523
Kingdom of Denmark and Norway
1521–1914
House of Oldenburg
Frederick I
1523–1533
Christian III
1533–1559
Frederick II
1559–1588
Christian IV
1588–1648
Frederick III
1648–1670
Christian V
1670–1699
Frederick IV
1699–1730
Christian VI
1730–1746
Frederick V
1746–1766
Christian VII
1766–1808
regency of Johann Friedrich Struense
1770–1772
Kingdom of Sweden (centered in Baltic Scandinavia)
980–1388
House of Yngling
980–1060
Erik the Victorious
980–995
Olof Sköttkonung
995–1022
Anund
1022–1050
Emund the Old
1050–1060
House of Stenkil
1060–1130
Stenkil Ragnvaldsson
1060–1066
Haaken the Red
ca. 1066–1079
Blot-Sven
1080–1083
Inge I
1083–1110
Philip
1110–1118
Inge II
1118–1130
Houses of Sverker and Erik
1130–1234
Sverker I, the Elder
1130–1156
St. Erik Jedvardsson
1156–1160
Charles Sverkersson
1161–1167
Kol Jonsson
1167–1173
Knut Eriksson
1173–1196
Sverker II
1196–1208
Erik Knutsson
1208–1216
John I
1216–1222
Erik Eriksson
1222–1229, 1234–1250
Knut the Tall
1229–1234
House of Folkung
1250–1388
Valdemar
1250–1275
Magnus I
1275–1290
Birger
1290–1318
Magnus II
1319–1364
Albert
1364–1388
The Swedes invite Margaret of Denmark to reign over them, and the two kingdoms are joined in the Kalmar Union from 1397 to 1523.
House of Vasa
1523–1654
Gustav I
1523–1560
Erik XIV
1560–1568
John III
1568–1592
Sigismund III
1592–1599
Karl IX (Charles IX)
1599–1611
Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus)
1611–1632
Christina
1632–1654
regency of Axel Oxenstierna
1632–1644
House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken
1654–1720
Karl X Gustav (Charles X Gustav)
1654–1660
Karl XI
1660–1697
Karl XII
1697–1718
Ulrika Eleonora
1718–1720
House of Hesse
Frederik I (Frederick I)
1720–1751
House of Holstein-Gottorp
1751–1818
Adolf Frederik (Adolphus Frederick)
1751–1771
Gustav III
1771–1792
Gustav IV Adolf
1792–1809
Karl XIII (Charles III)
1809–1818

Department of European Paintings, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Department of Medieval Art and The Cloisters, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

October 2003 (originally published)
April 2007 (last revised)

Citation

Department of European Paintings. “List of Rulers of Europe.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/euru/hd_euru.htm (originally published October 2003, last revised April 2007)

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