Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

List of Rulers of Europe

Thematic Essays

By Category

By Geographical Region & Time Period
By Department

The list that follows is meant as a complement to the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, not as a comprehensive historical reference. It presents a simplified picture of dynastic succession in a small number of large European principalities. The names of numerous princes who ruled smaller states are not to be found here, nor are the names of many pretenders, regents, and fully legitimate monarchs whose reigns were short or ambitions otherwise stifled. The abridged list includes above all those kings and queens whose rule affected the arts of Europe in important ways and whose names are most commonly raised in art historical discussion.


Central Europe

Holy Roman Empire (see below for a list of emperors) 962–1806  
Wettin Electors of Saxony 1423–1806
Wittelsbach Electors of Bavaria 1623–1806
Hohenzollern Electors of Brandenburg 1415–1701
Poland
Elected kings 1572–1795
Zygmunt III Wasa (Sigismund III Vasa) 1587–1632
Vladislav IV Wasa (Wladyslaw IV Vasa) 1632–48
Jan II Kasimierz Wasa (John II Casimir Vasa) 1648–68
Michael Wisniowiecki 1669–73
Jan III Sobieski (John III Sobieski) 1674–96
Augustus II, the Strong, 1697–1704(1) 1697–1704, 1709–33 1 Figure of Augustus the Strong [German; Meissen]
Augustus III 1733–63
Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski 1764–95
Partitions of Poland 1772, 1793, 1795
Divided under Habsburg, Prussian, and Russian rule 1795–1867
Kingdom of Prussia 1701–1867
Hohenzollerns 1701–1797
Friedrich I (Frederick I) 1701–13
Friedrich Wilhelm I (Frederick William I) 1713–40
Friedrich II, der Grosse (Frederick II, the Great) 1740–86
Friedrich Wilhelm II (Frederick William II) 1786–97
Romania and Moldova
Ottoman rule
Semi–autonomous Ottoman dependencies 1683–1861

England

Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Wessex (centered in southern England) 519–871
Cerdic 519–534
Cynric 534–560
Ceawlin 560–592
Ceol 592–597
Ceolwulf 597–611
Cynegils 611–642
Cenwalh 642–672
Seaxburh 672–674
Aescwine 674–676
Centwine 676–684
Ceadwalla 685–688
Ine 688–726
Aethelheard 726–740
Cuthred 740–756
Cynewulf 757–786
Berhtric 786–802
Egbert 802–839
Aethelwulf 839–858
Aethelbald 858–860
Aethelberht 860–866
Aethelred 866–871
The kings of Wessex, supreme throughout England, become the first royal house of England–see England.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Kent (centered in southeastern England) 455–827
Hengest 455–488
Aesc 488–512
Octa 512–522
Eormenric 522–560
Aethelbert I 560–616
Eadbald 616–640
Earconbert 640–644
Egbert I 664–673
Hlothere 673–685
Oswine 688–690
Wihtred 690–725
Aethelbert II 725–762
Sigered 762–764
Egbert II 765–784
Eadberht II 796–798
Cuthred 798–807
Baldred 823–825
The kings of Wessex, who have controlled Kent periodically during the eighth and ninth centuries, secure it for good as of 827.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria (centered in northern England, bordering Scotland) 592–841
Aethelfrith 592–616
Edwin 616–633
St. Oswald 634–642
Oswiu 642–670
Ecgfrith 670–685
Aldfrith 686–705
Osred I 706–716
Cenred 716–718
Osric 718–729
Ceolwulf 729–737
Eadberht 737–758
Aethelwald 759–765
Alhred 765–774
Aethelred I 774–779, 790–796
Aelfwald I 779–788
Eardwulf 796–808
Eanred 809–841
The kings of Wessex control Northumbria after 827, following a period of disorder and decline after Eadberht's demise.
Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Mercia (centered in central and western England, bordering Wales) 626–919
Penda 626–655
Wulfhere 658–675
Aethelred I 675–704
Cenred 704–709
Ceolred 709–716
Aethelbald 716–757
Offa 757–796
Cenwulf 796–821
Ceolwulf 821–823
Beornwulf 823–825
Ludeca 825–827
Wiglaf 827–840
Berhtwulf 840–852
Burgred 852–874
Ceolwulf I 874–879
Aethelred II 879–911
Aethelflaed 911–918
Aelfwyn 918–919
Mercia is annexed by the kings of Wessex.
England
Anglo-Saxons 802–1016
Alfred, the Great 871–99
Edward, the Elder 899–924
Aethelstan 924–39
Edgar 959–75
Aethelred II, the Unready 978–1016
Danes 1016–1042
Canute (Knut), the Great 1016–35
Harold I, called Harold Harefoot 1035–40
Hardecanute 1040–42
Anglo-Saxons 1042–1066
Edward, the Confessor 1042–66
Harold II 1066
Normans 1066–1154
William I, the Conqueror 1066–87
William II, called William Rufus 1087–1100
Henry I 1100–35
Stephen 1135–54
Plantagenets 1154–1399
Henry II 1154–89
Richard I, the Lion–Hearted 1189–99
John I 1199–1216
Henry III 1216–72
Edward I 1272–1307
Edward II 1307–27
Edward III 1327–77
Richard II 1377–99
Lancastrians 1399–1471
Henry IV 1399–1413
Henry V 1413–22
Henry VI 1422–61, 1470–71
Yorkists 1461–1485
Edward IV 1461–83
Edward V 1483
Richard III 1483–85
Tudors 1485–1603
Henry VII 1485–1509
Henry VIII 1509–47
Edward VI 1547–53
Mary I, called Mary Tudor or Bloody Mary 1553–58
Elizabeth I 1558–1603
Stuarts 1603–1714
James I 1603–25
Charles I 1625–49
Charles II 1660–85
James II 1685–88
William III and Mary II 1689–94
William III 1694–1702
Anne 1702–14
Hanoverians 1714–1901
George I 1714–27
George II 1727–60
George III 1760–1820
George IV 1820–30
William IV, the Sailor–King or Silly Billy 1830–37
Victoria(2) 1837–1901 2 Thomas Sully: Queen Victoria
Saxe–Coburgs 1901–1910
Edward VII 1901–10
Windsors 1910–present
George V 1910–36
Edward VIII 1936
George VI 1936–52
Elizabeth II 1952–present

France

Kingdom of the Franks 460–814
Childeric I 460–482
Chlodovech (Clovis) I(3) 482–511 3 Doorway from Moutiers–Saint–Jean [French]
Chlothar I(3) 511–561
Charibert I 561–584
Chlothar II 584–629
Dagobert I 629–639
St. Sigebert 639–656
Childebert(4) 656–661 4 Scenes from the Passion of Saint Vincent of Saragossa and the History of His Relics [French]
Childeric II 662–675
Theuderic III 676–690
Chlodovech (Clovis) III 690–694
Childebert III 694–711
Theuderic IV 721–737
Childeric III 743–751
Pippin 754–768
Charles (Charlemagne) 768–814
The Kingdom of the Franks ends when Charlemagne raises it to imperial stature in 800–thereafter, see the rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Duchy of Aquitaine (centered in western France) 898–1204
William I, the Pious 898–918
William II, the Younger 918–926
Ebalus the Bastard 927–934
William III, the Towhead 934–963
William IV, Fierabras (the Strong–Armed) 963–993
William V, the Great 993–1030
William VI, the Fat 1030–38
Eudes (Odo) 1038–39
William VII, the Brave 1039–58
William VIII 1058–86
William IX, the Troubadour 1086–1126
William X, the Toulousan 1126–37
Eleanor 1137–1204
The duchy is united with England upon Eleanor's marriage to Henry II of England.
Duchy of Brittany (centered in western France) 937–1514
House of Nantes 937–990
Alan I, Wrybeard 937–952
Drogo 952–958
Hoël 960–981
Guérech 981–988
Alan II 988–990
House of Rennes 990–1066
Conan I, the Crooked 990–992
Geoffrey I 992–1008
Alan III 1008–40
Conan II 1040–66
House of Cornouaille 1066–1166
Hoël 1066–84
Alan IV, Fergant (the Iron–Gloved) 1084–1112
Conan III, the Fat 1112–48
Eudo of Porho‘t 1148–56
Conan IV, the Younger 1156–66
House of Plantagenet
Geoffrey II 1166–86
House of Dreux 1187–1364
Arthur I (husband of Alix, daughter of Geoffrey II) 1187–1221
John I, the Red 1221–86
John II 1286–1305
Arthur II 1305–12
John III, the Good 1312–41
Charles of Blois 1341–64
House of Montfort 1364–1514
John IV, the Conqueror 1364–99
John V 1399–1442
Francis I 1442–50
Peter II 1450–57
Francis II 1458–88
Anne 1488–1514
The duchy is united with France upon Anne's marriage to Louis XII of France.
Duchy of Burgundy (centered in eastern France) 1162–1477
Hugh III 1162–93
Odo (Eudes) III 1193–1218
Hugh IV 1218–72
Robert II 1272–1309
Odo (Eudes) IV 1315–50
Philip de Rouvres 1350–61
Philip the Bold 1363–1404
John the Fearless 1404–19
Philip the Good 1419–67
Charles the Bold 1467–77
The dynasty ends with a female heir, and the duchy reverts to the French crown.
County of Provence (centered in southeastern France) 1112–1481
House of Barcelona 1112–1245
Raymond Berengar I 1112–31
Berengar Raymond I 1131–44
Raymond Berengar II 1144–66
Alfonso I 1166–73
Raymond Berengar IV 1173–81
Sancho 1181–85
Alfonso II 1185–1209
Raymond Berengar V 1209–45
Capetian House of Anjou 1246–1382
Charles I 1246–85
Charles II, the Lame 1285–1309
Robert the Wise 1309–43
Joan 1343–82
Valois House of Anjou 1382–1481
Louis I 1382–84
Louis II 1384–1417
Louis III 1417–34
René the Good 1434–80
Charles III, of Maine 1480–81
Provence becomes French territory according to the terms of Charles III's will.
County of Toulouse (centered in southwestern France) 844–1271
Fredelon 844–852
Raymond I 852–863
Bernard I 864–872
Bernard II, Hairfoot, of Auvergne 872–885
Eudes (Odo) 885–918
Raymond II 918–923
Raymond Pons 923–942
Raymond III, of Rouergue 942–961
Raymond IV 961–978
William III, Taillefer 978–1037
Pons 1037–60
William IV 1060–93
Raymond V, of St. Gilles 1093–1105
Bertram 1105–12
Alfonso Jordan 1112–48
Raymond VI 1148–94
Raymond VII 1194–1222
Raymond VIII 1222–49
Alfonso of Poitiers 1249–71
The county is united with France upon the death of Joan, daughter of Raymond VIII and wife of Alfonso of Poitiers, son of Louis VIII of France.
France
Capetians 987–1328
Hugues Capet (Hugh Capet) 987–96
Robert II, le Pieux (the Pious) 996–1031
Henri I (Henry I) 1031–60
Philippe I (Philip I) 1059–1108
Louis VI, le Gros (the Fat) 1108–37
Louis VII, le Jeune (the Young) 1137–80
Philippe Auguste (Philippe II) 1179–1223
Louis VIII, le Lion 1223–26
Louis IX (St. Louis)(5) 1226–70 5 Stained–Glass Panel [France]
Philippe III, le Hardi (Philip III, the Bold) 1270–85
Philippe IV, le Bel (Philip IV, the Fair) 1285–1314
Louis X, le Hutin (the Stubborn) 1314–16
Philippe V, le Long (Philip V, the Tall) 1316–22
Charles IV, le Bel (the Fair) 1322–28
Valois 1328–1589
Philippe VI (Philip VI), 1328–50
Jean II, le Bon (John II, the Good), 1350–64
Charles V, le Sage (the Wise)(13) 1364–80
Charles VI, le Bien–Aimé (the Well–Beloved) 1380–1422
Charles VII 1422–61
Louis XI 1461–83
Charles VIII 1483–98
Louis XII 1498–1515
François I (Francis I)(6) 1515–47 6 Girolamo della Robbia: Bust of Francis I
7 Jean Duvet: Henry II Between France and Fame
8 Air: Louis XIV as Jupiter, from a set of eight wall hangings depicting the Elements and the Seasons [French]
9 After a painting by Baron François–Pascal–Simon Gérard; Gobelins Royal Manufactory; Workshop of Michel–Henri Cozette: Tapestry: Portrait of Napoleon I
10 Honoré–Victorin Daumier: Le Passe–Le Present–L'Avenir
11 Jean–Baptiste Carpeaux: Bust of Napoleon III
Henri II (Henry II)(7) 1547–59
François II (Francis II) 1559–60
Charles IX 1560–74
Henri III (Henry III) 1574–89
Bourbons 1589–1792
Henri IV (Henry IV, called Henry of Navarre), 1589–1610
Louis XIII 1610–43
Louis XIV, le Roi Soleil (the Sun King)(8) 1643–1715
Louis XV, le Bien–Aimé (the Well–Beloved) 1715–74
Louis XVI 1774–92
First Empire 1804–1814
Napoleon I(9) 1804–14
Bourbons 1814–1830
Louis XVIII 1814–24
Charles X 1824–30
Orléans 1830–1848
Louis–Philippe, le Roi–Citoyen (the Citizen King)(10) 1830–48
Second Empire 1852–1870
Napoleon III, called Louis–Napoléon(11) 1852–70

Holy Roman Empire

Carolingians 800–911
Charlemagne (Charles I, the Great) 800–814
Louis I, le Pieux (the Pious) 814–40
Lothair I (in the Western part of the empire) 840–55
Ludwig II, der Deutsche (Louis II, the German) (in the Eastern part of the empire) 843–76
Ludwig II (Louis II) 855–75
Charles II, le Chauve (the Bald) 875–77
Charles III, le Gros (the Fat) 881–87
Arnulf 887–99
Ludwig III, das Kind (Louis III, the Child) 899–911
Saxons 911–1024
Konrad I (Conrad I) 911–18
Heinrich I, der Vogelfänger (Henry I, the Fowler) 919–36
Otto I, the Great(12) 936–73
Otto II 973–83
Otto III 983–1002
Heinrich II, der Heilige (Henry II, the Saint) 1002–24
Salians 1024–1137
Konrad II (Conrad II) 1024–39
Heinrich III (Henry III) 1039–56
Heinrich IV (Henry IV) 1056–1106
Heinrich V (Henry V) 1106–25
Lothair II 1125–37
Hohenstaufens 1138–1254
Konrad III (Conrad III) 1138–52
Friedrich I (Frederick I), Barbarossa 1152–90
Heinrich VI (Henry VI) 1190–97
Otto IV of Brunswick 1198–1215
Philipp (Philip) of Swabia 1198–1208
Friedrich II (Frederick II) 1212–50
Konrad IV (Conrad IV) 1251–54
Habsburgs
Luxemburgs, and others 1273–1437
Rudolf I (Habsburg) 1273–91
Adolf of Nassau 1292–98
Albrecht I (Albert I) (Habsburg) 1298–1308
Heinrich I (Henry VII) of Luxembourg 1308–13
Ludwig IV der Bayer (Louis IV of Bavaria) 1314–47
Charles IV of Luxembourg 1347–78
Wenceslas of Bohemia 1378–1400
Ruprecht Klem (Rupert) of the Palatinate 1400–1410
Sigismund of Luxembourg 1410–37
Albrecht II (Albert II) 1438–39
Friedrich III (Frederick III) 1440–93
Maximilian I 1493–19
Charles V(13) 1519–56
Ferdinand I 1556–64
Maximilian II(14) 1564–76
Rudolph II(15) 1576–1612
Matthias 1612–19
Ferdinand II 1619–37
Ferdinand III 637–57
Leopold I 1658–1705
Joseph I 1705–11
Charles VI 1711–40
Maria Theresa 1740–80
Joseph II 1765–90
Leopold II 1790–92
Franz II (Francis II) 1792–1806

Papacy (from John VIII, first pope to use the title officially)

John VIII 872–882
Marinus I 882–884
St. Hadrian III 884–885
Stephen VI 885–891
Formosus 891–896
Boniface VI 896
Stephen VII 896–897
John IX 898–900
Benedict IV 900–903
Sergius III 904–911
Anastasius III 911–913
John X 914–928
Stephen VIII 929–931
John XI 931–935
Leo VII 936–939
Stephen IX 939–942
Marinus II 942–946
Agapitus II 946–955
John XII 955–964
Leo VIII 963–965
John XIII 965–972
Benedict VI 973–974
Benedict VII 974–983
John XIV 983–984
Boniface VII 984–985
John XV 985–996
Gregory V 996–999
Sylvester II 999–1003
John XVII 1003
John XVIII 1004–9
Sergius IV 1009–12
Benedict VIII 1012–24
John XIX 1024–32
Benedict IX 1032–44
Sylvester III 1045
Gregory VI 1045–46
Clement II 1046–47
Damasus II 1048–49
St. Leo IX 1049–54
Victor II 1055–57
Stephen X 1057–58
Nicholas II 1059–61
Alexander II 1061–73
St. Gregory VII 1073–85
Bd. Victor III 1086–87
Bd. Urban II 1088–99
Paschal I 1099–1118
Gelasius II 1118–19
Calixtus II 1119–24
Honorius II 1124–30
Innocent II 1130–43
Celestine II 1143–44
Lucius II 1144–45
Bd. Eugenius III 1145–53
Anastasius IV 1153–54
Hadrian IV 1154–59
Alexander III 1159–81
Lucius III 1181–85
Urban III 1185–87
Gregory VIII 1187
Clement III 1187–91
Celestine III 1191–98
Innocent III 1198–1216
Honorius III 1216–27
Gregory IX 1227–41
Celestine IV 1241
Innocent IV 1243–54
Alexander IV 1254–61
Urban IV 1261–64
Clement IV 1265–68
Gregory X 1271–76
Innocent V 1276
Hadrian V 1276
John XXI 1276–77
Nicholas III 1277–80
Martin IV 1281–85
Honorius IV 1285–87
Nicholas IV 1288–92
St. Celestine V 1294
Boniface VIII 1294–1303
Bd. Benedict XI 1303–4
Clement V 1305–14
John XXII (ruled from Avignon) 1316–34
Benedict XII (ruled from Avignon) 1334–42
Clement VI (ruled from Avignon) 1342–52
Innocent VI (ruled from Avignon) 1352–62
Urban V (ruled from Avignon) 1362–70
Gregory XI, Pierre–Roger de Beaufort 1370–78
Urban VI, Bartolomeo Prignano 1378–89
Boniface IX, Pietro Tomacelli 1389–1404
Innocent VII, Cosimo de' Migliorati 1404–6
Gregory XII, Angelo Correr 1406–15
Martin V, Oddo Colonna 1417–31
Eugenius IV, Gabriele Condulmero 1431–47
Nicholas V, Tommaso Parentucelli 1447–55
Calixtus III, Alfonso de Borgia 1455–58
Pius II, Enea Silvio Piccolomini 1458–64
Paul II, Pietro Barbo 1464–71
Sixtus IV, Francesco della Rovere 1471–84
Innocent VIII, Giovanni Battista Cibò 1484–92
Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia 1492–1503
Pius III, Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini 1503
Julius II, Giuliano della Rovere 1503–13
Leo X, Giovanni de' Medici 1513–21
Adrian VI, Adrian Florensz Boeyens 1522–23
Clement VII, Giulio de' Medici 1523–34
Paul III, Alessandro Farnese 1534–49
Julius III, Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte 1550–55
Marcellus II, Marcello Cervini 1555
Paul IV, Gian Pietro Carafa 1555–59
Pius IV, Giovanni Angelo de' Medici 1559–65
St. Pius V, Antonio Ghislieri 1566–72
Gregory XIII, Ugo Buoncompagni 1572–85
Sixtus V, Felice Peretti 1585–90
Urban VII, Giambattista Castagna 1590
Gregory XIV, Niccolò Sfondrato 1590–91
Innocent IX, Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti 1591
Clement VIII, Ippolito Aldobrandini 1592–1605
Leo XI, Alessandro de' Medici 1605
Paul V, Camillo Borghese 1605–21
Gregory XV, Alessandro Ludovisi 1621–23
Urban VIII, Maffeo Barberini 1623–44
Innocent X, Giovanni Battista Pamphilj(16) 1644–55
Alexander VII, Fabio Chigi(17) 1655–67
Clement IX, Giulio Rospigliosi 1667–69
Clement X, Emilio Altieri 1670–76
Innocent XI, Benedetto Odescalchi 1676–89
Alexander VIII, Pietro Ottoboni 1689–91
Innocent XII, Antonio Pignatelli 1691–1700
Clement XI, Giovanni Francesco Albani 1700–1721
Innocent XIII, Michelangelo Conti 1721–24
Benedict XIII, Pierfrancesco Orsini 1724–30
Clement XII, Lorenzo Corsini 1730–40
Benedict XIV, Prospero Lambertini 1740–58
Clement XIII, Carlo Rezzonico 1758–69
Clement XIV, Giovanni Ganganelli 1769–74
Pius VI, Giovanni Angelo Braschi 1775–99
Pius VII, Barnaba Gregorio Chiaramonti 1800–1823
Leo XII, Annibale della Genga 1823–29
Pius VIII, Francesco Saverio Castiglioni 1829–30
Gregory XVI, Bartolomeo Cappellari 1831–46
Pius IX, Giovanni Mastai–Ferretti 1846–78
Leo XIII, Gioacchino Pecci 1878–1903
St. Pius X, Giuseppe Sarto 1903–14
Benedict XV, Giacomo della Chiesa 1914–22
Pius XI, Achille Ratti 1922–39
Pius XII, Eugenio Pacelli 1939–58
John XXIII, Angelo Roncalli 1958–63
Paul VI, Giovanni Battista Montini 1963–78
John Paul I, Albino Luciani 1978
John Paul II, Karol Wojtyla 1978–2005
Benedict XVI, Joseph Ratzinger 2005–present

Iberian Peninsula

Visigothic Kingdom 391–720
Alaric I 391–410
Athaulf 410–415
Wallia 415–418
Theodoric 418–451
Thorismund 451–453
Euric 466–484
Alaric II 484–507
Gesalic 507–511
Amalaric 511–531
Theudis 531–548
Achila I 548–555
Athanagild 555–567
Liuva I 567–572
Leovigild 568–586 (sole king after 572)
Reccared I 586–601
Sisebut 612–621
Svinthala 621–631
Sisenand 631–636
Chindaswinth 642–653
Recceswinth 653–672
Wamba 672–680
Erwig 680–687
Egica 687–702
Wittiza 702–710
Roderic 710–711
Achila II 711–714
Ardo 714–720
Muslim conquest brings kingdom to an end.
Kingdom of Aragon (northeastern Spain) 1035–1516
Ramiro I 1035–63
Sancho I Ramírez 1063–94
Pedro I (Peter I) 1094–1104
Alfonso I, el Batallador (the Battler) 1104–34
Ramiro II, el Monje (the Monk) 1134–37
Petronila 1137–74
Alfonso II, el Casto (the Chaste) 1164–96
Pedro II (Peter II) 1196–1213
Jaime I, el Conquistador (James I, the Conqueror) 1214–76
Pedro III, el Grande (Peter III, the Great) 1276–85
Alfonso III, el Liberal (the Generous) 1285–91
Jaime II (James II) 1291–1327
Alfonso IV, el Benigno (the Benign) 1327–36
Pedro IV, el Ceremonioso (Peter IV, the Ceremonious) 1336–87
Juan I (John I) 1387–95
Martin I 1395–1410
Interregnum 1410–12
Fernando I (Ferdinand I) 1410–16
Alfonso V, el Magnánimo (the Magnanimous) 1416–58
Juan II (John II) 1458–79
Fernando II, el Católico (Ferdinand II, the Catholic) 1479–1516
Kingdom of Castile (central Spain) 1029–1555
Sancho I, el Mayor (the Great) 1029–35
Fernando I, el Magno (Ferdinand I, the Great) 1035–65
Sancho II 1065–72
Alfonso VI, el Bravo (the Valiant) 1072–1109
Urraca 1109–26
Alfonso VII 1126–57
Sancho III 1157–58
Alfonso VIII 1158–1214
Enrique I (Henry I) 1214–17
Fernando III, el Santo (Ferdinand III, the Saint) 1217–52
Alfonso X, el Sabio (the Learned) 1252–84
Sancho IV 1284–95
Fernando IV, el Emplazado (Ferdinand IV, the Summoned) 1295–1312
Alfonso XI 1312–50
Pedro, el Cruel (Peter, the Cruel) 1350–69
Enrique II (Henry II) 1369–79
Juan I (John I) 1379–90
Enrique III, el Doliente (Henry III, the Sufferer) 1390–1406
Juan II (John II) 1406–54
Enrique IV (Henry IV) 1454–74
Isabel I, la Católica (Isabella I, the Catholic) 1474–1504
Juana I, la Loca (Joan/Joanna I, the Mad) 1504–55
Spain
Habsburgs
Carlos I (= Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire) 1516–56
Felipe II (Philip II) 1556–98
Felipe III (Philip III) 1598–1621
Felipe IV (Philip IV)(18) 1621–65
Carlos II (Charles II) 1665–1700
Bourbons (Borbóns) 1700–1808
Felipe V (Philip V) 1700–1724 (abdicated)
Luis I (Louis I) 1724
Felipe V (Philip V) 1724–46 (reinstated)
Fernando VI (Ferdinand VI) 1746–59
Carlos III (Charles III) 1759–88
Carlos IV (Charles IV) 1788–1808
Napoleonic Rule 1808–1814
Joseph Bonaparte 1808–14
Bourbons (Borbóns) 1808–present
Fernando VII (Ferdinand VII) 1808, 1814–33
Isabel II (Isabella II) 1833–68
Amadeo I, of Savoy 1870–73
Alfonso XII 1874–85
Alfonso XIII 1886–1931
Juan Carlos 1975–present

Italian Peninsula

Langobardic Kingdom (centered in northern Italy) 569–774
Alboin 569–572
Cleph 572–574
Authari (first husband of Theodelinda) 584–590
Agilulf (second husband of Theodelinda) 590–615
Adalwald 616–626
Ariwald 626–636
Rothari 636–652
Aripert I 653–661
Grimwald 662–671
Perctarit 671–688
Cunipert 688–700
Aripert II 701–712
Liutprand 712–744
Ratchis 744–749, 756–757
Aistulf 749–756
Desiderius 757–774
Invasion of the Franks brings kingdom to an end.
Doges of Venice
Orso Ipato 726–737
Teodato Ipato 742–755
Domenico Monegario 756–764
Maurizio Galbaio 764–787
Giovanni Galbaio 787–803
Obelerio degli Antenori 803–810
Agnello Particiaco 810–827
Giustiniano Particiaco 827–829
Giovanni Particiaco I 829–836
Pietro Tradonico 836–864
Orso Particiaco I 864–881
Giovanni Particiaco II 881–887
Pietro Candiano I 887
Pietro Tribuno 888–911
Orso Particiaco II 911–932
Pietro Candiano II 932–939
Pietro Particiaco 939–942
Pietro Candiano III 942–959
Pietro Candiano IV 959–976
Pietro Orseolo I 976–978
Tribuno Memmo 979–991
Pietro Orseolo II 991–1009
Otto Orseolo 1009–26
Pietro Centranico 1026–30
Domenico Flabinico 1031–41
Domenico Contarini I 1041–71
Domenico Silvo 1071–84
Vitale Falier 1084–95
Vitale Michiel I 1095–1110
Ordelafo Falier 1101–18
Domenico Michiel 1118–30
Pietro Polani 1130–48
Domenico Morosini 1148–55
Vitale Michiel II 1155–72
Sebastiano Ziani 1172–78
Orio Mastropiero 1178–92
Enrico Dandolo 1192–1205
Pietro Ziani 1205–29
Jacopo Tiepolo 1229–49
Marin Morosini 1249–53
Renier Zeno 1253–68
Lorenzo Tiepolo 1268–75
Jacopo Contarini 1275–80
Giovanni Dandolo 1280–89
Pietro Gradenigo 1289–1311
Giovanni Soranzo 1312–28
Francesco Dandolo 1329–39
Bartolomeo Gradenigo 1339–42
Andrea Dandolo 1343–54
Marino Falier 1354–55
Giovanni Gradenigo 1355–56
Giovanni Dolfin 1356–61
Lorenzo Celsi 1361–65
Marco Cornaro 1365–68
Andrea Contarini 1368–82
Antonio Venier 1382–1400
Michele Steno 1400–13
Tommaso Mocenigo 1414–23
Francesco Foscari 1423–57
Pasquale Malipiero 1457–62
Cristoforo Moro 1462–71
Niccolò Tron 1471–73
Niccolò Marcello 1473–74
Pietro Mocenigo 1474–76
Andrea Vendramin 1476–78
Giovanni Mocenigo 1478–85
Marco Barbarigo 1485–86
Agostino Barbarigo 1486–1501
Leonardo Loredan 1501–21
Antonio Grimani 1521–23
Andrea Gritti 1523–38
Pietro Lando 1539–45
Francesco Donato 1545–53
Marcantonio Trevisan 1553–54
Francesco Venier 1554–56
Lorenzo Priuli 1556–59
Girolamo Priuli 1559–67
Pietro Loredan 1567–70
Alvise Mocenigo I 1570–77
Niccolò da Ponte 1578–85
Pasquale Cigogna 1585–95
Marino Grimani 1595–1605
Leonardo Donato 1605–12
Marcantonio Memmo 1612–15
Giovanni Bembo 1615–18
Antonio Priuli 1618–23
Francesco Contarini 1623–24
Giovanni Cornaro I 1625–29
Niccolò Contarini 1630–31
Francesco Erizzo 1631–46
Francesco Molin 1646–55
Carlo Contarini 1655–56
Bertuccio Valier 1656–58
Giovanni Pesaro 1658–59
Domenico Contarini II 1659–75
Niccolò Sagredo 1675–76
Marcantonio Giustiniani 1684–88
Francesco Morosini 1688–94
Silvestro Valier 1694–1700
Alvise Mocenigo II 1700–1709
Giovanni Cornaro II 1709–22
Alvise Mocenigo III 1722–32
Carlo Ruzzini 1732–35
Alvise Pisani 1733–41
Pietro Grimani 1741–52
Francesco Loredan 1752–62
Marco Foscarini 1762–63
Alvise Mocenigo IV 1763–78
Paolo Renier 1779–89
Ludovico Monin 1789–97
The Venetian Republic and the office of Doge comes to an end with the French invasion of 1797.

Low Countries

Duchy of Brabant 1106–1430
House of Louvain 1106–1355
Godfrey I, the Bearded 1106–28
Walram II, of Limbourg 1128–39
Godfrey II 1139–42
Godfrey III 1142–90
Henry I 1190–1235
Henry II 1235–48
Henry III 1248–61
Henry IV 1261–67
John I, the Victorious 1267–94
John II 1294–1312
John III 1312–55
House of Luxemburg 1355–1406
Wenceslas 1355–83
Johanna (daughter of John III and wife of Wenceslas) 1383–1406
House of Burgundy 1406–1430
Anthony 1406–15
John IV 1415–27
Philip of St. Pol 1427–30
The duchy is united with Burgundy as of Philip's reign.

Russia

Muscovite Princes 1462–1598
Ivan III, the Great 1462–1505
Vasily III (Basil III) 1505–33
Ivan IV, the Terrible 1533–84
Fyodor I Ivanovich (Theodore I Ivanovich) 1584–98
Romanoff Czars 1613–1917
Michael (Mikhail) Romanoff 1613–45
Alexis (Alexei) I 1645–76
Peter (Pyotr) I, the Great 1682–1725
Catherine (Yekaterina) I 1725–27
Peter (Pyotr) II 1727–30
Anna Ivanovna 1730–40
Elizabeth (Yelisaveta) Petrovna 1741–62
Catherine (Yekaterina) II, the Great(19) 1762–96
Paul (Pavel) 1796–1801
Alexander (Aleksandr) I 1801–25
Nicholas (Nikolai) I(20) 1825–55
Alexander (Aleksandr) II 1855–81
Alexander (Aleksandr) III 1881–94
Nicholas (Nikolai) II 1894–1917

Scandinavia

Kingdom of Denmark (centered in the Danish peninsula) 940–1396
House of Jutland 940–1046
Harald I Bluetooth 940–986
Svend I Forkbeard 986–1014
Harald II 1014–18
Knud I, the Great 1019–35
Hardeknud 1035–42
Magnus the Good 1042–46
House of Svend Estridsen 1046–1375
Svend II Estridsen 1046–74
Harald III 1074–80
St. Knud 1080–86
Oluf I 1086–95
Erik I, the Evergood 1095–1103
Niels 1104–34
Erik II, the Memorable 1134–37
Erik III, the Lamb 1137–46
Knud III 1146–57
Valdemar I, the Great 1157–82
Knud IV 1182–1202
Valdemar II, the Victorious 1202–41
Erik IV Ploughpenny 1241–50
Christopher I 1252–59
Erik V 1259–86
Erik VI 1286–1319
Christopher II 1320–26, 1330–32
Valdemar III 1326–30
Valdemar IV 1340–75
House of Norway 1376–1396
Oluf II 1376–87
Margaret I 1387–96
Kalmar Union (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) 1397–1523
House of Pomerania
Erik VII 1396–1439
House of the Palatinate
Christopher III of Bavaria 1440–48
House of Oldenburg 1448–1523
Christian I 1448–81
John 1483–1513
Christian II 1513–23
Kingdom of Denmark and Norway 1521–1914
House of Oldenburg
Frederick I 1523–33
Christian III 1533–59
Frederick II 1559–88
Christian IV 1588–1648
Frederick III 1648–70
Christian V 1670–99
Frederick IV 1699–1730
Christian VI 1730–46
Frederick V 1746–66
Christian VII 1766–1808
Regency of Johann Friedrich Struense 1770–72
Kingdom of Sweden (centered in Baltic Scandinavia) 980–1388
House of Yngling 980–1060
Erik the Victorious 980–995
Olof Sköttkonung 995–1022
Anund 1022–50
Emund the Old 1050–60
House of Stenkil 1060–1130
Stenkil Ragnvaldsson 1060–66
Haaken the Red ca. 1066–79
Blot–Sven 1080–83
Inge I 1083–1110
Philip 1110–18
Inge II 1118–30
Houses of Sverker and Erik 1130–1234
Sverker I, the Elder 1130–56
St. Erik Jedvardsson 1156–60
Charles Sverkersson 1161–67
Kol Jonsson 1167–73
Knut Eriksson 1173–96
Sverker II 1196–1208
Erik Knutsson 1208–16
John I 1216–22
Erik Eriksson 1222–29, 1234–50
Knut the Tall 1229–34
House of Folkung 1250–1388
Valdemar 1250–75
Magnus I 1275–90
Birger 1290–1318
Magnus II 1319–64
Albert 1364–88
The Swedes invite Margaret of Denmark to reign over them, and the two kingdoms are joined in the Kalmar Union from 1397 to 1523.
House of Vasa 1523–1654
Gustav I 1523–60
Erik XIV 1560–68
John III 1568–92
Sigismund III 1592–99
Karl IX (Charles IX) 1599–1611
Gustav II Adolf (Gustavus Adolphus) 1611–32
Christina 1632–54
regency of Axel Oxenstierna 1632–44
House of Palatinate–Zweibrücken 1654–1720
Karl X Gustav (Charles X Gustav) 1654–60
Karl XI 1660–97
Karl XII 1697–1718
Ulrika Eleonora 1718–20
House of Hesse
Frederik I (Frederick I) 1720–51
House of Holstein–Gottorp 1751–1818
Adolf Frederik (Adolphus Frederick) 1751–71
Gustav III 1771–92
Gustav IV Adolf 1792–1809
Karl XIII (Charles III) 1809–18
Department of European Paintings, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Department of Medieval Art and The Cloisters, The Metropolitan Museum of Art