Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History

List of Rulers of Ancient Egypt and Nubia

Thematic Essays

By Category

By Geographical Region & Time Period
By Department
Our knowledge of the succession of Egyptian kings is based on kinglists kept by the ancient Egyptians themselves. The most famous are the Palermo Stone, which covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the middle of Dynasty 5; the Abydos Kinglist, which Seti I had carved on his temple at Abydos; and the Turin Canon, a papyrus that covers the period from the earliest dynasties to the reign of Ramesses II. All are incomplete or fragmentary. We also rely on the History of Egypt written by Manetho in the third century B.C. A priest in the temple at Heliopolis, Manetho had access to many original sources and it was he who divided the kings into the thirty dynasties we use today.

It is to this structure of dynasties and listed kings that we now attempt to link an absolute chronology of dates in terms of our own calendrical system. The process is made difficult by the fragmentary condition of the kinglists and by differences in the calendrical years used at various times. Some astronomical observations from the ancient Egyptians have survived, allowing us to calculate absolute dates within a margin of error. Synchronisms with the other civilizations of the ancient world are also of limited use.

Old Kingdom

ca. 2649–2150 B.C.

Dynasty 3, ca. 2649–2575 B.C.
Zanakht ca. 2649–2630 B.C.
Djoser ca. 2630–2611 B.C.
Sekhemkhet ca. 2611–2605 B.C.
Khaba ca. 2605–2599 B.C.
Huni ca. 2599–2575 B.C.
Dynasty 4, ca. 2575–2465 B.C.
Snefru ca. 2575–2551 B.C.
Khufu ca. 2551–2528 B.C.
Djedefre ca. 2528–2520 B.C.
Khafre1 ca. 2520–2494 B.C. 1 Fragmentary face of King Khafre [Egyptian]

2 Seated statue of King Menkaure [Egyptian]
Nebka II ca. 2494–2490 B.C.
Menkaure2 ca. 2490–2472 B.C.
Shepseskaf ca. 2472–2467 B.C.
Thamphthis ca. 2467–2465 B.C.
Dynasty 5, ca. 2465–2323 B.C.
Userkaf ca. 2465–2458 B.C.
Sahure3 ca. 2458–2446 B.C. 3 King Sahure and a nome god [Egyptian]
Neferirkare ca. 2446–2438 B.C.
Shepseskare ca. 2438–2431 B.C.
Neferefre ca. 2431–2420 B.C.
Niuserre ca. 2420–2389 B.C.
Menkauhor ca. 2389–2381 B.C.
Isesi ca. 2381–2353 B.C.
Unis ca. 2353–2323 B.C.
Dynasty 6, ca. 2323–2150 B.C.
Teti ca. 2323–2291 B.C.
Userkare ca. 2291–2289 B.C.
Pepi I ca. 2289–2255 B.C.
Merenre I ca. 2255–2246 B.C.
Pepi II ca. 2246–2152 B.C.
Merenre II ca. 2152–2152 B.C.
Netjerkare Siptah ca. 2152–2150 B.C.

First Intermediate Period

ca. 2150–2030 B.C.

Dynasty 8–Dynasty 10, ca. 2150–2030 B.C.
Dynasty 11, first half, ca. 2124–2030 B.C.
Mentuhotep I ca. 2124–2120 B.C.
Intef I ca. 2120–2108 B.C.
Intef II4 ca. 2108–2059 B.C. 4 Stele of King Intef II [Egyptian]

5 Relief of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II (detail) [Egyptian]
Intef III ca. 2059–2051 B.C.
Mentuhotep II5 ca. 2051–2030 B.C.

Middle Kingdom

ca. 2030–1640 B.C.

Dynasty 11, second half, ca. 2030–1981 B.C.
Mentuhotep II (cont.) ca. 2030–2000 B.C.
Mentuhotep III ca. 2000–1988 B.C.
Qakare Intef ca. 1985 B.C.
Sekhentibre ca. 1985 B.C.
Menekhkare ca. 1985 B.C.
Mentuhotep IV ca. 1988–1981 B.C.
Dynasty 12, ca. 1981–1802 B.C.
Amenemhat I6 ca. 1981–1952 B.C. 6 Relief of King Amenemhat I [Egyptian]

7 Relief of Senwosret I[Egyptian]

8 Guardian figure in the form of King Amenemhat II[Egyptian]

9 Face of Senwosret III [Egyptian]

10 Head of Amenemhat III [Egyptian]

11 Head of Ahmose I [Egyptian]

12 Head of Amenhotep I [Egyptian]

13 Relief of Thutmose I [Egyptian]

14 Kneeling statuette of Thutmose III [Egyptian]

15 Hatshepsut [Egyptian]

16 Head of Amenhotep II[Egyptian]

17 Chair panel of Thutmose IV [Egyptian]

18 Head of Amenhotep III [Egyptian]

19 Sculptor's model of the head of Akhenaten [Egyptian]

20 Head of Tutankhamun [Egyptian]

21 Haremhab as a scribe [Egyptian]

22 Relief of Ramesses I [Egyptian]

23 Statue of Seti I [Egyptian]

24 Osirid figure of Merneptah [Egyptian]

25 Head of Amenmesse [Egyptian]

26 Shawabti of Siptah [Egyptian]

27 Facsimile of tomb painting of Ramesses III [Egyptian]

28 Artist's sketch of Ramesses IV [Egyptian]

29 Relief of Ramesses IX [Egyptian]

Senwosret I7 ca. 1961–1917 B.C.
Amenemhat II8 ca. 1919–1885 B.C.
Senwosret II ca. 1887–1878 B.C.
Senwosret III9 ca. 1878–1840 B.C.
Amenemhat III10 ca. 1859–1813 B.C.
Amenemhat IV ca. 1814–1805 B.C.
Dynasty 13, ca. 1802–1640 B.C.

Second Intermediate Period

ca. 1640–1540 B.C.

Dynasty 14–Dynasty 16, ca. 1640–1635 B.C.
Dynasty 17, ca. 1635–1550 B.C.
Tao I ca. 1560 B.C.
Tao II ca. 1560 B.C.
Kamose ca. 1552–1550 B.C.

New Kingdom

ca. 1550–1070 B.C.

Dynasty 18, ca. 1550–1295 B.C.
Ahmose11 ca. 1550–1525 B.C.
Amenhotep I12 ca. 1525–1504 B.C.
Thutmose I13 ca. 1504–1492 B.C.
Thutmose II ca. 1492–1479 B.C.
Thutmose III14 ca. 1479–1425 B.C.
Hatshepsut (as regent) ca. 1479–1473 B.C.
Hatshepsut15 ca. 1473–1458 B.C.
Amenhotep II16 ca. 1427–1400 B.C.
Thutmose IV17 ca. 1400–1390 B.C.
Amenhotep III18 ca. 1390–1352 B.C.
Amenhotep IV ca. 1353–1349 B.C.
Akhenaten19 ca. 1349–1336 B.C.
Neferneferuaton ca. 1338–1336 B.C.
Smenkhkare ca. 1336 B.C.
Tutankhamun20 ca. 1336–1327 B.C.
Aya ca. 1327–1323 B.C.
Haremhab21 ca. 1323–1295 B.C.
Dynasty 19, ca. 1295–1186 B.C.
Ramesses I22 ca. 1295–1294 B.C.
Seti I23 ca. 1294–1279 B.C.
Ramesses II ca. 1279–1213 B.C.
Merneptah24 ca. 1213–1203 B.C.
Amenmesse25 ca. 1203–1200 B.C.
Seti II ca. 1200–1194 B.C.
Siptah26 ca. 1194–1188 B.C.
Tawosret ca. 1188–1186 B.C.
Dynasty 20, ca. 1186–1070 B.C.
Sethnakht ca. 1186–1184 B.C.
Ramesses III27 ca. 1184–1153 B.C.
Ramesses IV28 ca. 1153–1147 B.C.
Ramesses V ca. 1147–1143 B.C.
Ramesses VI ca. 1143–1136 B.C.
Ramesses VII ca. 1136–1129 B.C.
Ramesses VIII ca. 1129–1126 B.C.
Ramesses IX29 ca. 1126–1108 B.C.
Ramesses X ca. 1108–1099 B.C.
Ramesses XI ca. 1099–1070 B.C.

Hight Priests (HP) of Amun

ca. 1080–1070 B.C.

HP Herihor ca. 1080–1074 B.C.
HP Paiankh ca. 1074–1070 B.C.

Third Intermediate Period

ca. 1070–713 B.C.

Dynasty 21, ca. 1070–945 B.C.
Smendes ca. 1070–1044 B.C.
HP Painedjem I ca. 1070–1032 B.C.
HP Masaharta ca. 1054–1046 B.C.
HP Djedkhonsefankh ca. 1046–1045 B.C.
HP Menkheperre ca. 1045–992 B.C.
Amenemnisu ca. 1044–1040 B.C.
Psusennes I ca. 1040–992 B.C.
Amenemope ca. 993–984 B.C.
HP Smendes ca. 992–990 B.C.
HP Painedjem II ca. 990–969 B.C.
Osochor ca. 984–978 B.C.
Siamun ca. 978–959 B.C.
HP Psusennes ca. 969–959 B.C.
Psusennes II ca. 959–945 B.C.
Dynasty 22 (Libyan), ca. 945–712 B.C.
Sheshonq I ca. 945–924 B.C.
Osorkon I ca. 924–889 B.C.
Sheshonq II ca. 890 B.C.
Takelot I ca. 889–874 B.C.
Osorkon II ca. 874–850 B.C.
Harsiese ca. 865 B.C.
Takelot II ca. 850–825 B.C.
Sheshonq III ca. 825–773 B.C.
Pami ca. 773–767 B.C.
Sheshonq V ca. 767–730 B.C.
Osorkon IV ca. 730–712 B.C.
Dynasty 23, ca. 818–713 B.C.
Pedubaste I ca. 818–793 B.C.
Iuput I ca. 800 B.C.
Sheshonq IV ca. 793–787 B.C.
Osorkon III ca. 787–759 B.C.
Takelot III ca. 764–757 B.C.
Rudamun ca. 757–754 B.C.
Iuput II ca. 754–712 B.C.
Peftjaubast ca. 740–725 B.C.
Namlot ca. 740 B.C.
Thutemhat ca. 720 B.C.
Dynasty 24, ca. 724–712 B.C.
Tefnakht ca. 724–717 B.C.
Bakenrenef ca. 717–712 B.C.

Late Period

ca. 712–332 B.C.

Dynasty 25 (Nubian), ca. 712–664 B.C.
Piye (Establishes Nubian Dynasty in Egypt) ca. 743–712 B.C.
Shabaqo30 ca. 712–698 B.C. 30 Stele of Shabaqo [Egyptian]

31 Stele of Shebitqo [Egyptian]

32 Menat of Taharqo [Egyptian]

33 Statue of Psamtik I [Egyptian]

34 Relief of Apries [Egyptian]

35 Statuette of Amasis [Egyptian]

Shebitqo31 ca. 698–690 B.C.
Taharqo (Loses control of Lower Egypt)32 ca. 690–664 B.C.
Tanutamani (Loses control of Upper Egypt) ca. 664–653 B.C.
Dynasty 26 (Saite), 688–252 B.C.
Nikauba 688–672 B.C.
Necho I 672–664 B.C.
Psamtik I33 664–610 B.C.
Necho II 610–595 B.C.
Psamtik II 595–589 B.C.
Apries34 589–570 B.C.
Amasis35 570–526 B.C.
Psamtik III 526–525 B.C.
Dynasty 27 (Persian), 525–404 B.C.
Cambyses 525–522 B.C.
Darius I 521–486 B.C.
Xerxes I 486–466 B.C.
Artaxerxes I 465–424 B.C.
Darius II 424–404 B.C.
Dynasty 28, 522–399 B.C.
Pedubaste III 522–520 B.C.
Psamtik IV ca. 470 B.C.
Inaros ca. 460 B.C.
Amyrtaios I ca. 460 B.C.
Thannyros ca. 445 B.C.
Pausiris ca. 445 B.C.
Psamtik V ca. 445 B.C.
Psamtik VI ca. 400 B.C.
Amyrtaios II 404–399 B.C.
Dynasty 29, 399–380 B.C.
Nepherites I 399–393 B.C.
Psammuthis 393–393 B.C.
Achoris 393–380 B.C.
Nepherites II 380–380 B.C.
Dynasty 30, 380–343 B.C.
Nectanebo I 380–362 B.C.
Teos 365–360 B.C.
Nectanebo II36 360–343 B.C. 36 Statue of the falcon god Horus with Nectanebo II [Egyptian]

Persians 343–332 B.C.
Khabebesh 343–332 B.C.
Artaxerxes III Ochus 343–338 B.C.
Arses 338–336 B.C.
Darius III Codoman 335–332 B.C.

Macedonian Period

332–304 B.C.

Alexander the Great 332–323 B.C.
Philip Arrhidaeus 323–316 B.C.
Alexander IV 316–304 B.C.

Ptolemaic Period

304–30 B.C.

Ptolemy I Soter I 304–284 B.C.
Ptolemy II Philadelphos37 285–246 B.C. 37 Head of Ptolemy II Philadelphos [Egyptian]

38 Statue of the falcon god Horus with Nectanebo II [Egyptian]

39 Head of Ptolemy II or III [Egyptian]

40 Head of Ptolemy VI Philometor [Egyptian]

Arsinoe II38 278–270 B.C.
Ptolemy III Euergetes I39 246–221 B.C.
Berenike II 246–221 B.C.
Ptolemy IV Philopator 222–205 B.C.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205–180 B.C.
Harwennefer 205–199 B.C.
Ankhwennefer 199–186 B.C.
Cleopatra I 194–176 B.C.
Ptolemy VI Philometor40 180–145 B.C.
Cleopatra II 175–115 B.C.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170–116 B.C.
Harsiese ca. 130 B.C.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145–144 B.C.
Cleopatra III 142–101 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Soter II 116–80 B.C.
Ptolemy X Alexander I 107–88 B.C.
Ptolemy XI Alexander II 80–80 B.C.
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos 80–51 B.C.
Cleopatra IV Berenike III ca. 79 B.C.
Berenike IV 58–55 B.C.
Ptolemy XIII 51–47 B.C.
Cleopatra VII 51–30 B.C.
Ptolemy XIV 47–44 B.C.
Ptolemy XV 44–30 B.C. 41 Head of Augustus [Egyptian]

Roman Period

30 B.C.–364 A.D.

Augustus41 30–14 B.C.

Byzantine Period

364–476 A.D.
Department of Egyptian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art