Hortense Fiquet, a former artist’s model, met Cézanne about 1869; they had a son in 1872, fourteen years before they married. This painting, one of more than two dozen for which Hortense posed, is set in the conservatory of Jas de Bouffan, the Cézanne family estate near Aix. The unfinished canvas offers a revealing glimpse into Cézanne’s working method. He placed Madame Cézanne’s carefully modeled head slightly off-center, cradled between a lush tree and a spindly plant, and then proceeded to build up the rest of the pyramidal composition, touch by exacting touch.
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Title:Madame Cézanne (Hortense Fiquet, 1850–1922) in the Conservatory
For a technical essay featuring this painting, see Hale 2014.
Paul Cézanne fils, Paris (until at least October 1907); [Ambroise Vollard, Paris, by September 11, 1909–11; sold with another Cézanne (Rewald cat. rais. no. 729) for Fr 50,000 on April 28, 1911, to Morozov]; Ivan Abramovich Morozov, Moscow (1911–18); Museum of Modern Western Art, Moscow (1918–33; cat., 1928, no. 560; sold on May 9, 1933 through Knoedler to Clark); Stephen C. Clark, New York (1933–d. 1960)
Paris. Galerie Vollard. "Exposition Paul Cézanne," November–December 1895, no catalogue [see Vollard 1914].
Paris. Grand Palais des Champs-Élysées. "Salon d'automne," October 1–22, 1907, no. 25 (in the "Exposition Rétrospective d'Oeuvres de Cézanne," as "La Dame en noir," lent by M. Pellerin) [sic; presumed error in catalogue; this painting was lent by Cézanne fils; see departmental archives].
Berlin. Paul Cassirer. "XII. Jahrgang, III. Ausstellung [Cézanne Ausstellung]," November 17–December 12, 1909, no. 17 (as "Freilichtbildnis: Madame Cézanne").
London. Grafton Galleries. "Manet and the Post-Impressionists," November 8, 1910–January 15, 1911, no. 11 (as "Portrait de Mme. Cézanne," lent by M. Vollard).
Vienna. Galerie Miethke. February 1911, no catalogue.
Moscow. Museum of Modern Western Art. "Paul Cézanne (1839–1906), Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890)," 1926, no. 15.
Art Institute of Chicago. "A Century of Progress," June 1–November 1, 1934, no. 296 (as "Mme Cézanne in the Conservatory," lent anonymously).
New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Modern Works of Art," November 20, 1934–January 20, 1935, no. 5 (lent by a private collection).
New York. Century Club. "French Masterpieces of the Nineteenth Century," January 11–February 10, 1936, no. 17 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, Esq.).
Cleveland Museum of Art. "Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition," June 26–October 4, 1936, no. 254 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, New York).
San Francisco Museum of Art. "Paul Cézanne: Exhibition of Paintings, Water-colors, Drawings and Prints," September 1–October 4, 1937, no. 27.
New York. Durand-Ruel. "Exhibition of Masterpieces by Cézanne," March 29–April 16, 1938, no. 16 [see Rewald 1996].
New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Art in Our Time," May 10–September 30, 1939, no. 60.
New York. World's Fair. "Masterpieces of Art: European & American Paintings, 1500–1900," May–October 1940, no. 341 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).
New York. Paul Rosenberg & Co. "Paintings by Cézanne (1839–1906)," November 19–December 19, 1942, no. 15 (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark).
New York. Century Association. "Paintings from the Stephen C. Clark Collection," June 6–September 28, 1946, unnum. checklist (as "Madame Cézanne").
New York. Wildenstein & Co., Inc. "Cézanne," March 27–April 26, 1947, no. 48 (lent by Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark).
New York. M. Knoedler Galleries. "To Honor Henry McBride: An Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings, and Water Colours," November 29–December 17, 1949, no. 2 (lent by Stephen C. Clark, Esq.).
Art Institute of Chicago. "Cézanne: Paintings, Watercolors & Drawings," February 7–March 16, 1952, no. 68 (lent by Mr. Stephen C. Clark, New York).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cézanne: Paintings, Watercolors & Drawings," April 4–May 18, 1952, no. 68.
New York. M. Knoedler & Co. "A Collectors Taste: Selections from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark," January 12–30, 1954, no. 12.
New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Paintings from Private Collections," May 31–September 5, 1955, no. 17 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 1–September 1, 1958, no. 16 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 7–September 7, 1959, no. 9 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).
New Haven. Yale University Art Gallery. "Paintings, Drawings, and Sculpture Collected by Yale Alumni," May 19–June 26, 1960, no. 76 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition," July 6–September 4, 1960, no. 9 (lent by Stephen C. Clark).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "French Paintings from the Bequest of Stephen Clark," October 17, 1961–January 7, 1962, no catalogue.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Masterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 16–November 1, 1970, unnumbered cat. (p. 82).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries," November 14, 1970–June 1, 1971, not in catalogue.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Impressionist Epoch," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.
Naples. Museo di Capodimonte. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," December 3, 1986–February 1, 1987, no. 7.
Milan. Pinacoteca di Brera. "Capolavori Impressionisti dei Musei Americani," March 4–May 10, 1987, no. 7.
Yokohama Museum of Art. "Treasures from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: French Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century," March 25–June 4, 1989, no. 92.
Essen. Museum Folkwang. "Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso," June 25–October 31, 1993, no. 34.
Moscow. Pushkin Museum. "Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso," November 30, 1993–January 30, 1994, no. 34.
St. Petersburg, Russia. Hermitage. "Morozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso," February 16–April 16, 1994, no. 34.
Stockholm. Nationalmuseum. "Cézanne," October 17, 1997–January 11, 1998, no. 7.
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "Cézanne in Provence," January 29–May 7, 2006, no. 37.
Musée Granet, Aix-en-Provence. "Cézanne in Provence," June 9–September 17, 2006, no. 37.
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920," February 4–May 6, 2007, no. 78.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings: The Clark Brothers Collect," May 22–August 19, 2007, no. 35.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Madame Cézanne," November 19, 2014–March 15, 2015, unnumbered cat. (pl. 28).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art [The Met Breuer]. "Unfinished: Thoughts Left Visible," March 18–September 4, 2016, unnumbered cat. (colorpl. 121).
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Public Parks, Private Gardens: Paris to Provence," March 12–July 29, 2018, unnumbered cat.
New York. Museum of Modern Art. "Cézanne Drawing," June 6–September 25, 2021, unnumbered cat. (colorpl. 222).
THIS WORK MAY NOT BE LENT.
Julius Meier-Graefe. Impressionisten. 2nd ed. Munich, 1907, ill. p. 201, dates it about 1885.
Rainer Maria Rilke. Letter to Clara Rilke. October 16, 1907 [Engl. transl. published in Rainer Maria Rilke, "Letters on Cézanne," New York, 1985, pp. 57–58], mentions "those touchingly tentative portraits of Madame Cézanne" at the 1907 Salon d'Automne and describes the public's distaste for them.
Ambroise Vollard. Letter to Paul Cassirer. September 11, 1909 [published in Echte and Feilchenfeldt 2011–16, vol. 4, p. 315], includes it in a list of eighteen paintings by Cézanne lent to Cassirer for Berlin 1909, as no. 9, “Portrait de Madame Cézanne en plein air,” with a price of twenty-two thousand francs.
Hans Rosenhagen. "Aus den Berliner Kunstsalons." Der Tag no. 284 (December 4, 1909) [see Echte and Feilchenfeldt 2011–16, vol. 4, p. 301].
Julius Meier-Graefe. Paul Cézanne. 3rd ed., rev. and enl. Munich, 1910, ill. p. 46, dates it about 1885.
C. J. Holmes. Notes on the Post-Impressionist Painters: Grafton Galleries, 1910–11. London, 1910, p. 20.
K. R. "Ausstellungen: Wien." Der Cicerone 3 (1911), p. 233, identifies this work among five Cézanne paintings being shown on the upper floor of the Galerie Miethke [Exh. Vienna 1911].
Sergei Makovsky. "Catalogue Les Artistes Français de la Collection I. Morozoff à Moscou." Apollon 3, nos. 3–4 (1912), p. 23, ill. after p. 28, as "Portrait de Mme Cézanne".
Jean Royère. "Paul Cézanne, Erinnerungen." Kunst und Künstler 10 (July 1912), ill. p. 479.
Fritz Burger. Cézanne und Hodler: Einführung in die Probleme der Malerei der Gegenwart. Munich, 1913, vol. 1, pp. 86–87; vol. 2, pl. 69.
Ambroise Vollard. Paul Cézanne. [Eng. ed., 1923]. Paris, 1914, p. 58, pl. 24, calls it "Portrait de Madame Cézanne dans la serre" and dates it 1891; lists it among the paintings in the Cézanne exhibition at the Vollard gallery in 1895.
Julius Meier-Graefe. Entwicklungsgeschichte der modernen Kunst. Vol. 3, 2nd ed. Munich, 1915, pl. 497, locates it in the Morosoff [sic] collection, Moscow.
Roger Fry. "'Paul Cézanne' by Ambroise Vollard." Burlington Magazine 31 (August 1917), p. 61, pl. 3, calls it "Madame Cézanne in a Greenhouse" and dates it 1891.
Max Deri. Die Malerei im XIX. Jahrhundert. Berlin, 1920, vol. 1, pp. 201–3; vol. 2, pl. 46.
Georges Rivière. Le Maître Paul Cézanne. Paris, 1923, p. 218, states that it was painted at the Jas de Bouffan; locates it as still in the Morozov collection, Moscow.
[Boris Nikolaevich] Ternovietz. "Le Musée d'Art Moderne de Moscou." L'Amour de l'art 6 (December 1925), p. 470, ill. p. 473, states that this work was exhibited by Vollard in 1895, in Vienna in 1907, and the Salon d'automne of 1907; asserts that it was once owned by Pellerin and that Morozov bought it from Vollard in 1911 for Fr 35,000.
Paul Ettinger. "Die modernen Franzosen in den Kunstsammlungen Moskaus." Der Cicerone 18, no. 4 (1926), p. 111, ill. p. 114.
Julius Meier-Graefe. Cézanne. London, 1927, p. 63, pl. XCIII, locates it as still in the Morozov collection, Moscow.
Christian Zervos. "Idéalisme et Naturalisme dans la peinture moderne, II.—Cézanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh." Cahiers d'art 2 (1927), ill. p. 333, locates it in the Museum of Modern Art, Moscow.
Musée d'art moderne de Moscou: Catalogue illustré. Moscow, 1928, p. 98, no. 560, pl. 25, as from the Morozov collection.
Louis Réau. Catalogue de l'art français dans les musées russes. Paris, 1929, p. 100, no. 742.
Joachim Gasquet. Cézanne. Berlin, 1930, ill. opp. p. 148.
Harry Adsit Bull. "Modern French Paintings in Moscow." International Studio 97 (October 1930), p. 24.
John Becker. "The Museum of Modern Western Painting in Moscow—Part I." Creative Art 10 (March 1932), p. 200, ill. p. 195.
Georges Rivière. Cézanne: le peintre solitaire. Paris, 1933, p. 145, states that it was painted in the summer of 1891.
Art News 32 (May 12, 1934), ill. p. 3, states that it has been "recently acquired by a prominent private collector from the Museum of Modern Western Art, Moscow, through the agency of the Knoedler Galleries".
Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 28 (April–May 1934), pp. 51–52, ill., notes that it will be exhibited for the first time in America at the Century of Progress exhibition [Exh. Chicago 1934].
Alfred H. Barr Jr., ed. Modern Works of Art. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1934, pp. 11, 23, no. 5, pl. 5.
A Century of Progress Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. Chicago, 1934, p. 46, no. 296, pl. L.
Gerstle Mack. Paul Cézanne. New York, 1935, p. 341.
Lionello Venturi. "Cézanne." L'Arte 6 (September 1935), pp. 393–94, pl. IX, fig. 19, dates it shortly after 1890.
Lionello Venturi. Cézanne: son art—son oeuvre. Paris, 1936, vol. 1, pp. 60–61, 188, no. 569; vol. 2, pl. 181, no. 569, dates it about 1890; comments that it disproves the myth of Cézanne's hostility toward women; considers this picture to be unfinished, noting that the bare canvas is visible; calls it "une des expressions de grâce les plus profondes que Cézanne ait jamais atteint dans un portrait de femme".
Charles Sterling inCézanne. Exh. cat., Musée de l'Orangerie. Paris, 1936, p. 146, under no. 160, catalogues a pencil study for this picture, dated about 1888 (National Gallery of Art, Washington; Chappuis 1973, no. 1068).
Alfred M. Frankfurter. "French Masterpieces, 1850–1900: An Important Loan Exhibition of Painting Currently at the Century Club." Art News 34 (February 1, 1936), p. 6, ill. on cover.
Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1936, p. 100, no. 254, pl. LXV, erroneously lists it in the 1904 Salon d'automne.
Augustus Vincent Tack. Exhibition of French Masterpieces of the Nineteenth Century. Exh. cat., Century Club. New York, 1936, unpaginated, no. 17, ill., erroneously lists it in the Salon d'automne of 1904 and states that it was sold by Pellerin to Vollard.
Robert J. Goldwater. "Cézanne in America: The Master's Paintings in American Collections." Art News Annual, section I (The 1938 Annual), 36 (March 26, 1938), p. 156, ill. on cover (color).
Alfred M. Frankfurter. "Cézanne: Intimate Exhibition. Twenty-one Paintings Shown for the Benefit of Hope Farm." Art News 36 (March 26, 1938), p. 17, ill. p. 15, dates it about 1890; discusses it in relation to "Madame Cézanne Sewing" (about 1877; Nationalmuseum, Stockholm; V291, R323).
Alfred M. Frankfurter. "Cézanne in New York." Burlington Magazine 72 (May 1938), p. 243.
Thomas Craven, ed. A Treasury of Art Masterpieces, from the Renaissance to the Present Day. New York, 1939, pp. 533–35, colorpl. 130, remarks that all of the portraits of Madame Cézanne are unfinished.
James W. Lane. "Thirty-three Masterpieces in a Modern Collection: Mr. Stephen C. Clark's Paintings by American and European Masters." Art News Annual 37 (February 25, 1939), p. 133, ill. p. 138, remarks that the head is "a distinct entity above the diagonal conservatory wall and emphatically separate from the black dress below it".
Art in our Time. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 1939, unpaginated, no. 60, ill.
John Rewald. Cézanne: Sa vie, son oeuvre, son amitié pour Zola. Paris, 1939, p. 346.
R. H. Wilenski. Modern French Painters. New York, , p. 346, dates it 1890.
Alfred M. Frankfurter. "383 Masterpieces of Art." Art News (The 1940 Annual) 38 (May 25, 1940), p. 64, ill. p. 39 (color), calls it one of the most successful paintings of Cézanne's wife.
"Important Cézanne Survey Staged as Benefit for Fighting French." Art Digest 17 (December 1, 1942), pp. 5, 17, ill.
Lionello Venturi. "Cézanne, Fighter for Freedom." Art News 41 (November 15–30, 1942), pp. 18–19, ill. (color), dates it about 1890; erroneously states that Clark acquired it in 1931.
[Paul Rosenberg]. Paintings by Cézanne (1839–1906). Exh. cat., Paul Rosenberg & Co. New York, 1942, pp. 17, 30–31, no. 15, ill. p. 55, dates it about 1890.
Evelyn Marie Stuart. "Editor's Letters." Art News 41 (January 15–31, 1943), p. 4.
Preface by Edward Alden Jewell inFrench Impressionists and Their Contemporaries Represented in American Collections. New York, 1944, ill. p. 135 (color), calls it "Mme. Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it 1890.
John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946, ill. p. 413, calls it "Mme Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it about 1890.
Bernard Dorival. Cézanne. [English ed., 1948]. Paris, 1948, pp. 59, 61, 163–64, pl. 112, dates it about 1890.
Alonzo Lansford. "Clark Collection Shown for Charity." Art Digest 22 (March 15, 1948), p. 9, notes that this picture can be seen at 46 East 70th Street when Clark opens his home to the public from April 1–3.
Howard Devree. "Stephen C. Clarks Open Art Show at Home to Help Fresh Air Association of St. John." New York Times (April 2, 1948), p. 21.
Henry McBride. To Honor Henry McBride: An Exhibition of Paintings, Drawings and Water Colours. Exh. cat., M. Knoedler Galleries. 1949, unpaginated, no. 2, ill., dates it 1891.
Lionello Venturi. Impressionists and Symbolists. Vol. 2, New York, 1950, pp. 134–35, fig. 134, calls it "Madame Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it about 1890.
C. A. "L'Art moderne français dans les collections des musées étrangers—I. Musée d'Art Moderne Occidental à Moscou." Cahiers d'art 25, no. 2 (1950), p. 338, no. 16, lists it as formerly in the Morozov collection.
Marion Downer. Paul Cézanne. New York, 1951, unpaginated, ill.
James M. Carpenter. "Cézanne and Tradition." Art Bulletin 33 (September 1951), p. 182.
Meyer Schapiro. Paul Cézanne. 1st ed. New York, 1952, pp. 82–83, ill. (color), dates it about 1890 and calls it unfinished; comments that it is a rare example of the interplay of foreground and background in Cézanne's oeuvre and compares it in this respect to the portrait of Gustave Geffroy (Musée d'Orsay, Paris; V692, R791).
Daniel Catton Rich inCézanne: Paintings, Watercolors & Drawings. Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago. [Chicago], 1952, pp. 62, 65, no. 68, ill. on cover (color), dates it about 1890.
Winthrop Sergeant. "Cézanne." Life 32 (February 25, 1952), p. 76, ill. (color).
Theodore Rousseau Jr. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Miniatures: Paintings by Paul Cézanne. Vol. 35, New York, 1952, unpaginated, ill. (color), calls it "Hortense Cézanne, the Artist's Wife" and dates it about 1890; notes the possible influence of Ingres in the linear outline of the figure.
Theodore Rousseau Jr. Paul Cézanne (1839–1906). New York, 1953, unpaginated, colorpl. 21, dates it about 1890 and calls it the "most elegant" of all of Cézanne's portraits.
Maurice Raynal. Cézanne. Lausanne, 1954, ill. p. 87 (color), dates it about 1890.
A Collector's Taste: Selections from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Stephen C. Clark. Exh. cat., M. Knoedler & Co. New York, 1954, unpaginated, no. 12, ill., dates it about 1890.
Introduction by Alfred H. Barr Jr. "Paintings from Private Collections." Museum of Modern Art Bulletin 22 (Summer 1955), pp. 11, 30, no. 17, ill. (installation photo).
James Thrall Soby. "Collectors' Choice." The Saturday Review (July 2, 1955), p. 34?, as "Mme. Cézanne in the Observatory".
Lionello Venturi. Four Steps Toward Modern Art: Giorgione, Caravaggio, Manet, Cézanne. New York, 1956, p. 72, fig. 29.
Alfred Neumeyer. Cézanne Drawings. New York, 1958, pp. 24, 46, under no. 36, comments that the "evolution from an accidental sketch" (National Gallery, Washington; Chappuis 1068) to this painting "is a completely logical one".
Hilton Kramer. "Month in Review." Arts 34 (September 1960), pp. 56–57, ill.
Stuart Preston. "Art: Gallic Flavor at the Metropolitan." New York Times (July 6, 1960), p. 29.
"Ninety-first Annual Report of the Trustees for the Fiscal Year 1960–1961." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (October 1961), p. 64, ill., frontispiece (color), dates it about 1891.
Stuart Preston. "Metropolitan Museum Displays Paintings and Drawings Received in 1960." New York Times (October 17, 1961), p. 47, notes its "rocklike immobility".
Peter H. Feist. Paul Cézanne. Leipzig, 1963, pp. 17, 32, 76, pl. 47, dates it about 1890; erroneously states that Clark bought it in 1930.
Kurt Badt. The Art of Cézanne. [German ed., 1956]. Berkeley, 1965, p. 187, mentions this painting as an example of changes in Cézanne's portraits, noting that the sitters are no longer placed before empty backgrounds "but in the midst of objects and in explicit relationship to them; and yet not 'at home' among them".
Anne H. van Buren. "Madame Cézanne's Fashions and the Dates of Her Portraits." Art Quarterly 29 (1966), pp. 118–21, 123–24 nn. 5, 17, 18, p. 127 n. 18, fig. 12, dates it 1886–87, noting that it could not have been painted before 1883 since the dress appears similar to one advertised in the December 23, 1882 issue of "Le Moniteur de la mode"; argues that Venturi's  date of "circa 1890" is too late, contrasting the spontaneity of this portrait with the more abstract, geometric compositions of portraits from the early nineties, such as "Madame Cézanne in a Red Dress" (The Met 62.45) and "The Woman with the Coffee Pot" (Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.; V575, R853); compares the thin paint and curved lines of foliage in this picture to "View of Gardanne" (1886; Brooklyn Museum; V431, R571) and suggests that it was made at the time of the Cézannes's marriage; asserts that Madame Cézanne is seated in a walled garden since the conservatory panes are not visible as they are in Cézanne's self-portrait (Kunstmuseum Bern; V366, R415).
Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 3, XIX–XX Centuries. New York, 1967, pp. 100–102, 109, ill., date it about 1880 based on the "attractive mood," handling, and apparent age of the sitter; consider it unfinished.
Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill., dates it about 1880.
Richard W. Murphy et al. The World of Cézanne: 1839–1906. New York, 1968, pp. 104–5, ill. (color), and ill. on slipcase, dates it about 1890.
Frank Elgar. Cézanne. New York, , pp. 152, 158, 279, fig. 91, dates it about 1890.
Jack Lindsay. Cézanne: His Life and Art. Greenwich, Conn., 1969, p. 351, fig. 76, calls it "Hortense in the Greenhouse" in the text and "Madame Cézanne in the Conservatory" in the caption; dates it 1890.
Sandra Orienti inL'opera completa di Cézanne. [French ed., 1975; English ed., 1985]. Milan, 1970, p. 112, no. 569, ill., dates it 1890.
Wayne Andersen. Cézanne's Portrait Drawings. Cambridge, Mass., 1970, p. 98, under no. 70.
Edith A. Standen inMasterpieces of Painting in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. New York, , p. 82, ill. (color), dates it about 1880.
Marcel Brion. Paul Cézanne. Milan, 1972, p. 49, ill. (color), dates it about 1890.
Adrien Chappuis. The Drawings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. Greenwich, Conn., 1973, vol. 1, p. 246, under no. 1068, calls the pencil study for this picture (National Gallery of Art, Washington) "fairly close to the painting... though the drawing seems to have been done outdoors".
John Rewald. "The Impressionist Brush." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 32, no. 3 (1973/1974), pp. 40–41, 46, no. 26, ill. (overall and color detail), dates it about 1891.
Meyer Schapiro. P. Cézanne. Paris, 1973, unpaginated, colorpl. 27, dates it about 1890.
John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. 4th rev. ed. New York, 1973, ill. p. 561, calls it "Mme Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it about 1890.
Carl R. Baldwin. The Impressionist Epoch. Exh. brochure, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. [New York], 1974, ill. p. 18.
Lydie Huyghe in René Huyghe. La Relève du réel: la peinture française au XIXe siècle: impressionnisme, symbolisme. Paris, 1974, p. 435.
Sidney Geist. "The Secret Life of Paul Cézanne." Art International 19 (November 20, 1975), pp. 13–14, ill., asserts that "The Large Bathers" (Philadelphia Museum of Art; V719, R857) contains a hidden image of the head of Madame Cézanne, which resembles this portrait.
Bernard Dunstan. "Notes on Painting from the Model." American Artist 39 (September 1975), pp. 36–37, ill. (color).
Alice Bellony-Rewald. The Lost World of the Impressionists. London, 1976, p. 227, considers it unfinished and calls it "the only lifelike image of Hortense".
Vivian Endicott Barnett. The Guggenheim Museum: Justin K. Thannhauser Collection. New York, 1978, p. 33, cites 1977 correspondence from Douglas Cooper relating this picture to the Guggenheim's portrait of Madame Cézanne (V525, R582) and dating both about 1883.
Lionello Venturi. Cézanne. Geneva, 1978, p. 113, ill. p. 115 (color), dates it about 1890.
Joyce E. Brodsky. "Cézanne and the Image of Confrontation." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 92 (September 1978), p. 85.
John Rewald. Letter to Margaretta Salinger. March 3, 1978, states that a photograph of this picture in the Vollard archives is annotated "91" by Cézanne's son, who arrived at Aix with Madame Cézanne during the first half of April 1891; comments that the son, then nineteen, was old enough to remember her posing for this picture, "obviously at the conservatory of the Jas, which has since been changed".
Robert C. Williams. Russian Art and American Money, 1900–1940. Cambridge, Mass., 1980, p. 34, quotes an April 21, 1933 cable from Charles R. Henschel, president of Knoedler, to his Soviet government contact, the Matthiesen Gallery in Berlin, stating that one of his clients is interested in buying this picture, along with works by Degas (The Met 61.101.7), Van Gogh, and Renoir (The Met 61.101.14); erroneously adds that the sale did not take place.
Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, pp. 429–30, fig. 789 (color), dates it about 1880 or later; discusses the tension between the decorative background and solid foreground.
Albert Elsen. Purposes of Art. 4th ed. [1st ed. 1962]. New York, 1981, p. 326, fig. 457, dates it about 1890.
John Rewald. Paul Cézanne: The Watercolors, A Catalogue Raisonné. Boston, 1983, p. 132, under no. 194, discusses this picture in relation to a watercolor study of potted plants (about 1885; Musée d'Orsay, Paris), which may also depict the conservatory of the Jas de Bouffan.
Beverly Whitney Kean. All the Empty Palaces: The Merchant Patrons of Modern Art in Pre-Revolutionary Russia. London, 1983, pp. 116, 124, 322 n. 24.
Bruno Ely inCézanne au Musée d'Aix. Aix-en-Provence, 1984, pp. 192, 195, 221, ill., relates it to Nicolas Van Haeften's "La Bénédicité" (1715) and a portrait of Madame Cézanne of 1885–87, both in the Musée Granet, Aix.
Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 11, 182–83, 253, ill. (color), calls it unfinished.
Jill Anderson Kyle. "Cézanne's 'Les Joueurs de Cartes'." Master's thesis, Rice University, 1985, pp. 86–87, 108 n. 228, dates it 1890; disagrees with the assessment of this painting as unfinished, proposing taking "into account the usefulness of incorporating the neutral underpainting in the total optical effect as a deliberate calculation"; compares the hands in this painting to the relatively finished hands in the "Cardplayers" (Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.; V560, R706).
John Rewald. Cézanne: A Biography. New York, 1986, p. 277, ill. p. 191 (color), dates it 1891–92.
Gary Tinterow et al. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Vol. 8, Modern Europe. New York, 1987, p. 53, colorpl. 32.
Gary Tinterow et al. Capolavori impressionisti dei musei americani. Exh. cat., Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. Milan, 1987, pp. 24–25, no. 7, ill. (color).
Sidney Geist. Interpreting Cézanne. Cambridge, Mass., 1988, p. 164, pl. 134, dates it 1890.
Ettore Camesasca. The São Paulo Collection: From Manet to Matisse. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum Vincent Van Gogh, Amsterdam. Milan, 1989, p. 112, ill., calls it "Madame Cézanne on the Veranda" and dates it about 1890.
Gary Tinterow inTreasures from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: French Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Exh. cat., Yokohama Museum of Art. [Tokyo?], 1989, pp. 146–47, no. 92, ill. (color), dates it about 1891; observes that "although clearly unfinished, it is undeniably a monumental work".
Christian Geelhaar in Mary Louise Krumrine. Paul Cézanne: The Bathers. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts. Basel, 1990, pp. 290, 302 n. 113, mentions it among Cézanne pictures copied by Juan Gris from photographs.
Hajo Düchting. Paul Cézanne 1839–1906: Natur wird Kunst. Ed. Ingo F. Walther. [Engl. ed., 1999]. Cologne, 1990, p. 155, ill. p. 157 (color), dates it 1891–92.
Mary Louise Krumrine. Paul Cézanne: The Bathers. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts. Basel, 1990, pp. 55, 258 n. 85, compares the face of the central standing figure in Cézanne's "The Temptation of Saint Anthony" (about 1870; Foundation E. G. Bührle Collection, Zurich; V103, R167) with several portraits of Madame Cézanne, including this one.
Albert Kostenevich inMorozov and Shchukin—The Russian Collectors: Monet to Picasso. Ed. Georg W. Költzsch. Exh. cat., Museum Folkwang Essen. Cologne, 1993, pp. 103, 122, 129 n. 166, pp. 336, 387, no. 34, colorpl. 34, ill. pp. 103, 439 (installation photos), p. 355 (color), agrees with Rewald's  dating of this picture to 1891–92; discusses its influence on Russian painters who studied the Cézannes in Morozov's collection.
Walter Feilchenfeldt in Götz Adriani. Cézanne: Gemälde. Exh. cat., Kunsthalle Tübingen. Cologne, 1993, p. 310 n. 35, identifies it as no. 17 in Exh. Berlin 1909.
Maria Teresa Benedetti. Cézanne. [Italian ed., 1995]. Paris, 1995, pp. 170, 186–87, ill. (color), dates it 1891–92.
Jean-Jacques Lévêque. Paul Cézanne: Le précurseur de la modernité, 1839–1906. Paris, 1995, p. 115, ill. (color), dates it 1890.
Katharine Baetjer. European Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art by Artists Born Before 1865: A Summary Catalogue. New York, 1995, p. 468, ill.
Joseph J. Rishel inCézanne. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris. Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 272, 575, fig. 2 [French ed., Paris, 1995], suggests that the conservatory may have been "a small greenhouse [that] once stood in the park of the Jas de Bouffan, near the back entrance to the house and adjacent to the ornamental pool," where Cézanne also painted the watercolors "Flowerpot" (about 1885; Musée d'Orsay, Paris; R194) and "Geraniums" (1888–90; National Gallery of Art, Washington, R213), and the oil, "Geraniums" (1888–90; Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.; V602, R702), among other works.
Linda Nochlin. "Cézanne: Studies in Contrast." Art in America 84 (June 1996), p. 66.
John Rewald, in collaboration with Walter Feilchenfeldt, and Jayne Warman. The Paintings of Paul Cézanne: A Catalogue Raisonné. New York, 1996, vol. 1, pp. 441–42, 562–63, 567–72, no. 703; vol. 2, p. 241, fig. 703, dates it 1891–92.
Linda Nochlin. Cézanne's Portraits. Lincoln, Neb., 1996, p. 19.
Görel Cavalli-Björkman inCézanne i blickpunkten. Exh. cat., Nationalmuseum. Stockholm, 1997, pp. 42–43, no. 7, ill. (color).
Görel Cavalli-Björkman. "Cézanne i blickpunkten: Focus on Cézanne." Art Bulletin of Nationalmuseum Stockholm 4 (1997), pp. 53–54, ill. (color).
Albert Kostenevich inHenri Matisse: Four Great Collectors. Ed. Kasper Monrad. Exh. cat., Statens Museum for Kunst. Copenhagen, 1999, p. 111.
Christina Feilchenfeldt inCézanne: Finished, Unfinished. Exh. cat., Kunstforum Wien. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany, 2000, p. 156.
Mary Tompkins Lewis. Cézanne. London, 2000, pp. 240–43, 252, fig. 149 (color), dates it about 1891–92; comments that it "offers a subtle reworking of a familiar theme in portraiture in which a woman is depicted as a natural component of a flowering, protective environment"; compares it to Manet's "Madame Manet in the Conservatory" (1879; Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo).
Dr. Evelyn Benesch inCézanne: Finished, Unfinished. Exh. cat., Kunstforum Wien. Ostfildern-Ruit, Germany, 2000, pp. 52–54, fig. 18, dates it 1891–92; mentions this picture as an example of Cézanne's focus on the faces of his sitters and "less concern for such peripheral parts of the body as the hands".
Jill Berk Jiminez inDictionary of Artists' Models. Ed. Jill Berk Jiminez and Joanna Banham. London, 2001, p. 190.
Albert Kostenevich inDie russische Avantgarde und Paul Cézanne. Exh. cat., Gustav-Lübcke-Museum. Bönen, 2002, pp. 16, 25.
Philippe Cros. Paul Cézanne. Paris, 2002, p. 157, ill. p. 164 (color), calls it "Madame Cézanne in the Greenhouse" and dates it 1891–92; cites it as a reflection of Cézanne's "neurotic concern for distance".
Nina Maria Athanassoglou-Kallmyer. Cézanne and Provence: The Painter in His Culture. Chicago, 2003, pp. 48–50, fig. 1.37 (color), asserts that the hydrangea (hortensia) in the flowerpot is a pun on the sitter's name; contrasts Madame Cézanne's melancholy appearance with Manet's happier representation of his wife in "La lecture" (1865–73; Musée d'Orsay, Paris).
Tobias G. Natter. Die Galerie Miethke: Eine Kunsthandlung im Zentrum der Moderne. Exh. cat., Jüdisches Museum der Stadt Wien. Vienna, 2003, pp. 123–24, 157, ill. (color), states that this picture was shown on the first floor of the Galerie Miethke in early 1911 [Exh. Vienna 1911]; erroneously lists it among the Cézanne paintings included in the Galerie Miethke's 1912 exhibition "Französische Meister".
Denis Coutagne. "Les Paysages du Jas de Bouffan." Jas de Bouffan—Cézanne. Aix-en-Provence, 2004, p. 138, fig. 124 (color).
Sarah Lees inThe Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, pp. 245, 248, 251, 315, 321, no. 55, ill. p. 244 (color detail) and fig. 182 (color overall).
Gilbert T. Vincent and Sarah Lees inThe Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Paintings. Exh. cat., Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. Williamstown, Mass., 2006, p. 156.
Rebecca A. Rabinow and Jayne S. Warman inCézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Ed. Rebecca A. Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 284.
Robert Jensen inCézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Ed. Rebecca A. Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, p. 47 n. 88 [French ed., "De Cézanne à Picasso: Chefs-d'oeuvre de la galerie Vollard," Paris, 2007, p. 57 n. 88].
Denis Coutagne in Philip Conisbee and Denis Coutagne. Cézanne in Provence. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. Washington, 2006, pp. 91–92, 318, no. 37, colorpl. 37 [French ed., Paris, pp. 111–12, no. 37, colorpl. 37], dates it 1891–92; notes that it is the only outdoor portrait of the sitter.
Albert Kostenevich inCézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde. Ed. Rebecca A. Rabinow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2006, pp. 253, 255–56 nn. 46, 54 [French ed., "De Cézanne à Picasso: Chefs-d'oeuvre de la galerie Vollard," Paris, 2007, pp. 267–68, 270 nn. 46, 54].
Charles Stuckey. "Review of Athanassoglou-Kallmyer 2003." Nineteenth-Century Art Worldwide 5 (Spring 2006) [http://www.19thc-artworldwide.org/spring06/53-spring06/spring06review/167-cezanne-and-provence-the-painter-in-his-culture-by-nina-maria-athanassoglou-kallmyer], takes issue with Kallmyer's (2003) claim that Madame Cézanne's dress is ten years out of fashion.
Gary Tinterow inThe Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, p. 11.
Susan Alyson Stein inThe Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 112, 189–91, no. 78, ill. (color and black and white).
Susan Alyson Stein inMasterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 128, 223–24, no. 117, ill. (color and black and white).
Ruth Butler. Hidden in the Shadow of the Master: The Model-Wives of Cézanne, Monet, and Rodin. New Haven, 2008, pp. 70, 72, 86, ill. p. 73, notes that the use of thick strokes of paint, as in "Madame Cézanne with Loosened Hair" (about 1890–92, Philadelphia Museum of Art), "intensif[ies] the place of Hortense's head within the picture"; states that there is no paint at all on her fingers depicted in fingerless gloves, just hastily drawn pencil marks.
Susan Sidlauskas inRe-framing Representations of Women: "Figuring, Fashioning, Portraiting," and "Telling" in the "'Picturing' Women" Project. Ed. Susan Shifrin. Aldershot, England, 2008, pp. 192–93, fig. 6.5 (color), notes that the femininity of the sitter's dress is undermined by her androgynous facial features.
Bruce Altshuler, ed. Salon to Biennial—Exhibitions That Made Art History, 1863–1959. Vol. 1, London, 2008, p. 87, reproduces London 1910 catalogue page.
Matthew Simms. Cézanne’s Watercolors: Between Drawing and Painting. New Haven, 2008, pp. 94–95, fig. 64 (color), states that its “intermediate state of development” reveals Cézanne’s tendency to focus first on certain details of the motif before moving on to others; argues that Cézanne’s insistence on completeness, rather than finish, accounts for its present state.
Carolyn Lanchner inCézanne and Beyond. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 2009, p. 394, fig. 14.14 (color), discusses Giacometti's drawing after this painting (Collection Fondation Alberto et Annette Giacometti, Paris).
Susan Sidlauskas. Cézanne's Other: The Portraits of Hortense. Berkeley, 2009, pp. 6, 108–9, 135–36, 147–48, 153, 158–59, 162, 170, 174–75, 178, 186–99, 215, 265 n. 114, p. 266 n. 136, pp. 267–68 nn. 139, 148, colorpl. 1, dates it 1891–92; proposes that Madame Cézanne wears stylish, semisheer fingerless gloves, called "mitaines," in this picture, noting that Lucy Belloli, The Met conservator, disagrees and considers the fingers to be simply unfinished; comments that the jacket could also be sheer, which was fashionable in the 1890s; compares the symmetry and elegance in this portrait to properties of classical sculpture, describing the sitter as a "conceptual and visual hybrid of... the dignified, maternal woman... and the feminized young man"; considers the Guggenheim portrait (V525, R582) to be a "formal and attractive partner" to ours, but suggests that the National Gallery drawing (Chappuis 1068) may not be a study.
Mary Tompkins Lewis in Gail Stavitsky and Katherine Rothkopf. Cézanne and American Modernism. Exh. cat., Montclair Art Museum. Montclair, 2009, p. 127.
Aviva Burnstock, Charlotte Hale, Caroline Campbell, and Gabriella Macaro inCézanne's Card Players. Ed. Nancy Ireson and Barnaby Wright. Exh. cat., Courtauld Gallery. London, 2010, pp. 40, 43, figs. 14, 15 (color, overall and detail), 18 (digital infrared reflectogram detail).
Kunstsalon Cassirer. Ed. Bernhard Echte and Walter Feilchenfeldt. Wädenswil, Zürich, 2011–16, vol. 4, pp. 301, 314–15, 483, ill. (color), as “Mme Cézanne im Garten” and “Freilichtbildnis: Mme. Cézanne”; publish Vollard 1909; republish Rosenhagen 1909.
Lukas Gloor inCézanne and the Past: Tradition and Creativity. Exh. cat., Szépmüvészeti Múzeum. Budapest, 2012, p. 196, notes that the Soviet government sold it in exchange for foreign currency.
Péter Molnos inCézanne and the Past: Tradition and Creativity. Exh. cat., Szépmüvészeti Múzeum. Budapest, 2012, pp. 208, 516 n. 29, discusses its exhibition at the Galerie Miethke in 1911.
Jean Colrat. Cézanne: Joindre les mains errantes de la nature. Paris, 2013, pp. 16–18, fig. 5 (color).
Charlotte Hale in Dita Amory. Madame Cézanne. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 47–55, 57, 59, 64–67, 71, 175 nn. 19, 22, 29, p. 176 nn. 39, 43, colorpl. 28, figs. 14 (infrared), 20 (color detail), 29 (infrared detail), 30 (color detail), 31 (x-ray detail), discusses the painting at length; calls it "arguably the most ambitious composition" of the Madame Cézanne paintings; notes that the artist's open-ended process of painting, with areas left unpainted and reworked areas, allows us to track the evolution of the painting toward its realization; notes that he used a larger standard size format in his later paintings of Hortense, as in The Met's picture; notes the visibility of the lead white ground in the fingers, the thinly painted dress, and unpainted patches at the edges of the background; states that the underdrawing is more extensive than in any other of the portraits of Hortense and that its "zones of possibility" allowed the artist to keep his options open; indicates vestiges of his academic training can be found in the use of registration lines around her eyes and nose, visible in the infrared reflectogram; sees the extensive underdrawing as possibly related to the complex indoor-outdoor setting and unusual light conditions; notes that ultramarine blue underpaint was first applied in translucent colored washes diluted with turpentine that allowed the charcoal underdrawing to stay visible and that the washes thinned and pooled toward the bottom of the canvas; emphasizes his traditional use of warm-cool contrasts, particularly to paint flesh, and its debt to the work of Rubens; states that scientific analysis found the use of both poppy-seed and linseed oil mediums; notes the progressive abstraction of features of the composition and increased ambiguity of space as the painting proceeded; states that the head and background were extensively reworked.
Dita Amory in Dita Amory. Madame Cézanne. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, p. 18, states that the artist gave the sitter fingerless gloves with no real articulation of the digits; notes that, contrary to his typical technique, he seems to have worked his way down the canvas from top to bottom, abandoning the canvas after resolving the bodice area.
Ann Dumas in Dita Amory. Madame Cézanne. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 89–90, 98, 178 n. 29, presents the historiography of the painting and others from Cézanne's series of portraits of Hortense.
Hilary Spurling in Dita Amory. Madame Cézanne. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, p. 157, notes that Henri Matisse visited Ivan Morosov [sic], who owned this picture.
Dita Amory and Kathryn Kremnitzer in Dita Amory. Madame Cézanne. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, p. 164, state that Alberto Giacometti made an ink drawing after it (fig. 74).
Kathryn Kremnitzer in Dita Amory. Madame Cézanne. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2014, pp. 210–12, ill. (color).
Walter Feilchenfeldt, Jayne Warman, and David Nash. The Paintings, Watercolors and Drawings of Paul Cezanne: An Online Catalogue Raisonné. 2014–?, no. 509, ill. (color) [https://www.cezannecatalogue.com/catalogue/entry.php?id=681], date it 1891–92.
Stefan Koldehoff. Ich und van Gogh: Bilder, Sammler und ihre abenteuerlichen Geschichten. Berlin, 2015, pp. 76–77.
Christopher Lloyd. Paul Cézanne: Drawings and Watercolors. Los Angeles, 2015, p. 120.
Asher Ethan Miller inUnfinished: Thoughts Left Visible. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art [The Met Breuer]. New York, 2016, p. 139.
Mary Clare McKinley inUnfinished: Thoughts Left Visible. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art [The Met Breuer]. New York, 2016, p. 280, colorpl. 121, discusses the question of the picture's state of finish.
Susan Alyson Stein inSeurat's Circus Sideshow. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2017, p. 111, cites Lansford 1948, who called it "Mme. Cézanne in the Greenhouse".
Jayne Warman in John Elderfield Mary Morton and Xavier Rey. Cézanne Portraits. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Princeton, 2017, p. 240.
Colta Ives. Public Parks, Private Gardens: Paris to Provence. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2018, pp. 121, 124, 179, fig. 120 (color).
Carol Armstrong. Cézanne’s Gravity. New Haven, 2018, pp. 176, 178, fig. 90 (color), describes it as the least "estranged" of Cézanne’s portraits of his wife.
Sasha Kalter-Wasserman inThannhauser Collection: French Modernism at the Guggenheim. Ed. Megan Fontanella. New York, 2018, p. 65, fig. 6.3 (color).
Denis Coutagne in "Les portraits au Jas de Bouffan." Cezanne Jas de Bouffan: Art et histoire. Ed. Denis Coutagne and François Chédeville. Lyons, 2019, pp. 201, 210, 212, 215, fig. 205 (color), describes Aline Cézanne (b. 1914), the artist's and sitter’s granddaughter, viewing the painting in 2006 and recalling how her grandmother used to take her in her arms as a child; reads the sitter as “ready to open her arms” for an embrace.
A pencil study for the head of Madame Cézanne is in the National Gallery of Art, Washington (V1303; Chappuis 1973, no. 1068).
This work may not be lent.
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Paul Cézanne (French, Aix-en-Provence 1839–1906 Aix-en-Provence)
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