Gymnastic training was an essential part of a boy's education. It was important for citizens to be in good physical condition, as they could be called upon for military service. Athletes who competed in the Panhellenic games at Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and Isthmia, as well as those held by other cities, such as the Panathenaic games of Athens, specialized in certain events and worked intensively with professional trainers.
Hoppin, James C. and Albert Gallatin. 1926. Corpus Vasorum Antiquorum, USA 1, Hoppin and Gallatin Collections. p. 105, Gallatin pl. 60.6, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Beazley, John D. 1963. Attic Red-figure Vase-painters, Vols. 1 and 2, 2nd ed. p. 779, no. 1 top, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Herrmann, John and Christine Kondoleon. 2004. Games for the Gods: The Greek Athlete and the Olympic Spirit. no. 35, pp. 78, 173, Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.