At the center of the circular plate of this buckle is a tiny face superimposed on a cross. Other instances of this face that appear with inscriptions indicate that it is meant to represent Christ.
J. Pierpont Morgan (American), London and New York (until 1917)
Ricketson, Edith B. "Barbarian Jewelry of the Merovingian Period." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 5, no. 5 (January 1947). p. 140.
Nees, Lawrence. "Migrations Art." In Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, edited by William W. Kibler, and Grover A. Zinn. Garland Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages, Vol. 2. New York and London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1995. ill. p. 618 .
Brown, Katharine R., Dafydd Kidd, and Charles T. Little, ed. From Attila to Charlemagne: Arts of the Early Medieval Period in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York and New Haven: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. p. 252, 349, fig. 21.39.
Effros, Bonnie. Caring for Body and Soul: Burial and the Afterlife in the Merovingian World. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University, 2002.