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Japan and the Culture of the Four Seasons: Nature, Literature, and the Arts

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Shiva as Mrityunjaya, the Conquerer of Death

Period:
Pala period
Date:
12th century
Culture:
Bangladesh or India (Bengal)
Medium:
Black stone
Dimensions:
H. 39 in. (99.1 cm); W. 18 1/2 in. (47 cm)
Classification:
Sculpture
Credit Line:
Gift of Florence and Herbert Irving, in memory of Alice Boney, 1991
Accession Number:
1991.421
  • Description

    This is an extremely rare representation of Shiva as Mrityunjaya, the destroyer of death and disease. He is shown deep in meditation in yogic form, as indicated by his interlocked legs and resting hands. The Uttarakamika, a ritual and iconographic text (agama), dictates that he should be represented in a tranquil state with three eyes, six arms, and matted dreadlocks (jatamukuta) adorned with the crescent moon. He displays a rosary and a water vessel, and his two missing hands would have held his trident (trisula) and a skull bowl (kapala), completing the ritually required iconography. A chain garland hangs below his legs (the text speaks of a garland of skulls). He is flanked by female attendants bearing fly-whisks and the hybrid bird-humans kinnara and kinnari, who provide music about his head. Celestial garland bearers hover above. His throne is a lotus pedestal with a makara-finial throne back. His devotee the bull kneels at lower left; the donor figure, at lower right.

  • See also
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    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
    MetPublications
38127

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