Column statues showing apostles began to appear in France and northern Italy from the mid-twelfth century onward. Too large to have come from a cloister—like the sculpture opposite from Saint-Denis—this column may have supported a pulpit or tomb. The Romanizing philosopher type with scroll suggests the figure represents Saint Paul.
[ Stefano Bardini, Florence (until 1918)]; his sale, American Art Association, New York (April 23-27, 1918, no. 379); Michael Dreicer, New York(until 1921)
Townsend, Horace, ed. De Luxe Illustrated Catalogue of the Beautiful Treasures and Antiquities Illustrating the Golden Age of Italian Art Belonging to the Famous Expert and Antiquarian Signor Stefano Bardini of Florence, Italy. New York: American Art Association, April 23–27, 1918. no. 379, ill.
Beeson, Nora B., ed. Guide to The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1972. no. 29, pp. 216–17.
Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Lisbeth. "Romanesque Sculpture in North American Collections. XXIII. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Part III: Italy (2)." Gesta 24, no. 4 (1985). no. 12, pp. 165-66, fig. 15.
Wixom, William D. "Medieval Sculpture at the Metropolitan: 800 to 1400." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, n.s., 62, no. 4 (2005). p. 18.
Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Lisbeth, and Jack Soultanian. Italian Medieval Sculpture in The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The Cloisters. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2010. no. 23, pp. 97–99.