The Printed Image in the West: Etching

See works of art
  • Album with Twelve Engravings of The Passion, a Woodcut of Christ as the Man of Sorrows, and a Metalcut of St. Jerome in Penitence
  • Landscape with a Double Spruce in the Foreground
  • The Lovers
  • Cadmus fighting the Dragon
  • The Rabbit Hunt
  • The Virgin seated on a cloud
  • Saint Jerome in the Wilderness
  • Drunken Silenus holding a cup aloft, into which a Satyr pours wine
  • Self-Portrait, from The Iconography
  • Beggar Leaning on a Stick, Facing Left
  • The Garden of Venus who reclines in the centre before a term of Pan and surrounded by cupids
  • The Windmill
  • The Genius of Castiglione
  • Death carrying a child, from The five deaths (Les cinq Morts)
  • Reading the News at the Weavers Cottage
  • Recruits Going to Join the Regiment
  • Imaginary View of Venice (undivided plate)
  • The Skeletons: From the Grotteschi
  • La famille du Satyr
  • The Octagonal Room in the Small Baths at the Villa of Hadrian (Tivoli).
  • Manet Seated, Turned to the Left
  • Little Venice (The Little Venice)
  • Maternal Caress

Works of Art (24)


While engraving evolved from the craft of goldsmithing, etching, in which the work of cutting into the metal is accomplished through the action of acid, is closely related to the armorer’s trade. A plate of metal is first covered with a layer of acid-resistant varnish or wax, called the “ground.” The artist then scratches through the ground with an etching needle to expose the metal beneath. When the design is complete, the plate is dipped in acid, which eats away the lines where the metal has been exposed. The depth of the lines depends on the length of time the plate is exposed to the acid. Once the ground has been removed, the metal plate, with its incised lines, can be printed in the same way as any intaglio plate. While the printing requires considerable craft, the incising of the coated plate with the etching needle can be done by anyone who knows how to draw, encouraging many painters to try their hand.

As was the case with woodcut and engraving, the first etchings seem to have been produced in Germany. The early German etchers made use of iron plates, stronger than copper yet susceptible to rust and harder to work. For many German printmakers, such as Albrecht Dürer, etching was a short-lived experiment, but for the artists of the Danube school, famed for their calligraphic draftsmanship and for being the first to create works of pure landscape, the medium proved most congenial. Albrecht Altdorfer’s s Landscape with a Double Spruce (1993.1097)marks the beginning of a long and harmonious marriage between the medium of etching and the subject of landscape. In Italy, Marcantonio Raimondi seems to have been the first to take up etching, but it was Parmigianino who recognized the potential of the medium to render the fluid lines of a sketch. Prints like The Lovers (26.70.3 [102]), which read as a direct translation of his drawing technique, were much admired and imitated in Italy, where an artist’s draftsmanship was an important measure of his genius. In the 1540s, a burst of etching took place at Fontainebleau in France, where a group of artists—perhaps motivated by a desire to publicize their accomplishments in that remote locale—began to make use of etching to reproduce the designs drawn by Rosso Fiorentino, Primaticcio, and others for the decoration of the palace of Francis I. A work by Léon Davent, Cadmus Fighting the Dragon (49.97.570), provides a good example of the appealingly light and delicate technique evolved by this short-lived school of etchers.

While etching continued to be practiced by some Italian artists, particularly in the Veneto, and usually with an admixture of engraving, it was the intimate and luminous Madonna in the Clouds ( by Federico Barocci, produced at the end of the sixteenth century, that pointed the way in the centuries to come, when etching would be the favored medium of painters both north and south of the Alps. Among the artists to be impressed by Barocci’s achievement was Annibale Carracci, whose reform of painting was to have an enormous impact on the art of the seventeenth century. Both Annibale and his brother Agostino, a professional engraver, produced engraved copies of Barocci’s Madonna in the Clouds. It may have been Barocci’s example that caused Annibale to turn increasingly to etching, producing such expressive and atmospheric works as the Saint Jerome in the Wilderness (

Wendy Thompson
Department of Drawings and Prints, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

October 2003


Thompson, Wendy. “The Printed Image in the West: Etching.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2003)

Further Reading

Freedberg, David. Dutch Landscape Prints of the Seventeenth Century. London: British Museum Publications, 1980.

Reed, Sue Welsh, and Richard Wallace. Italian Etchers of the Renaissance & Baroque. Exhibition catalogue. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1989.

Additional Essays by Wendy Thompson