37 1/2 x 68 in. (95.3 x 172.7 cm)
Purchase, Lila Acheson Wallace and The Annenberg Foundation Gifts; Harris Brisbane Dick, Rogers, and Gwynne Andrews Funds; Pat and John Rosenwald, Mr. and Mrs. Mark Fisch, and Jon and Barbara Landau Gifts; Gift of Mortimer D. Sackler, Theresa Sackler and Family; and Victor Wilbour Memorial, Marquand, The Alfred N. Punnett Endowment, and Charles B. Curtis Funds, 2000 (2000.68)
At the start of this period, the region is fragmented into city-states dominated by Venice and Milan, two great rivals whose territorial holdings extend over much of northern Italy (with frequently changing boundaries). Even after peace is established between the two at Lodi in 1454, political strife continues through the sixteenth century, as the area is subject to invasion by foreign powers intent on possession of Milan and parts of the Venetian terra firma. Meanwhile, to preserve their own authority, city-states frequently form alliances with and against each other, often with papal or imperial support.
The Renaissance ideals that prevail in central Italy by the turn of the fifteenth century take root in the north by mid-century. Painting, architecture, and the liberal arts flourish at the courts of noble rulers such as the Sforza in Milan, the Gonzaga in Mantua, and the Este in Ferrara. Above all, however, Venice is home to a celebrated school of painting and many of the greatest masters of the period.
1444Ludovico II Gonzaga (r. 144478), a member of the influential ruling family of Mantua (from 1328), Montferrat (from 1536), and Guastalla (from 1539), is named marquis of Mantua. Under Ludovico, the great architect Leon Battista Alberti (14041472) designs the Church of Sant'Andrea in Mantua, and the painter Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506) enters his service. Even more illustrious as an art patron at the Gonzaga court is Isabella d'Este (14741539), a daughter of the ruling house of Ferrara and Modena and wife of Francesco Gonzaga (r. 14841519). Highly educated and versed in music, poetry, and classical languages, Isabella is also a consummate collector: among the cultural luminaries with whom she associates are the poets Matteo Maria Boiardo (ca. 14411494) and Ludovico Ariosto (14741533), and numerous artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Bellini, and Perugino.
from mid-15th centuryGiovanni Bellini (ca. 14301516) is the foremost Venetian painter of his time. Known particularly for compositions of the Madonna and Child and sacre conversazioni, of which the altarpiece for the Church of San Zaccaria is one of the most celebrated, Bellini develops a style of painting that combines the sculptural monumentality of the Florentine tradition with a lyricism achieved by rich, saturated colors and subtle effects of light and shade. Among his pupils are the later masters Giorgione (ca. 1477/81510) and Titian (Tiziano Vecellio) (ca. 1485/901576).
ca. 1446Sigismondo Malatesta (14171468), a member of the ruling house of Rimini (in Romagna), commissions Alberti to rebuild the thirteenth-century Church of San Francesco. The renovated structure, called the Tempio Malatestiano, reflects Alberti's admiration for classical models in its marked emulation of the nearby Arch of Augustus (27 B.C.), as well as the patron's ambitions to identify himself with the glory of the Roman emperors.
1447The death of Filippo Maria Visconti (13921447) ends more than two centuries of Visconti rule in Milan. A republic (the so-called Ambrosian Republic) is established at his death, but by 1450, Filippo's son-in-law, Francesco Sforza (14011466), is named duke of Milan. The city flourishes under the patronage of the Sforza family, who remain in power, with interruptions, until 1535, after which possession of the duchy is contested by Spain and France.
mid-15th centuryFerrara, ruled by the Este family, is a center for humanist learning and the arts. Chiefly responsible for this is Leonello d'Este (14071450), himself a scholar and avid patron. Several years later, Ercole I d'Este (14311505) cultivates in Ferrara his love for Northern art and culture, supporting the production of manuscript illumination and commissioning music from the celebrated Flemish composer Josquin des Prez (ca. 14501521).
second half of 15th centuryCharacterized by a humanistic treatment of subject matter and an emphasis on rational space, proportion, and perspective, the Renaissance style, which has by this time flourished in Tuscany, makes its way to northern Italy. These developments are inspired by visiting artists such as Paolo Uccello (13971475)who travels to Venice earlier in the century, contributing mosaics to the Cathedral of San Marcoand Donatello, who produces among other commissions the earliest significant equestrian monument in the new Renaissance style, the Gattamelata, during his ten-year stay in Padua from 144353. An important school of painting develops in Padua, of which Andrea Mantegna (1430/311506) is the chief exponent. Mantegna is among the first artists of the Renaissance to produce images that combine mythological subject matter with a style based on the study of ancient art; his prints, accessible by a wide audience, are especially vital in the dissemination of Renaissance ideals.
14701476Giovanni Antonio Amadeo constructs the exquisitely ornamented Cappella Colleoni in Bergamo (ruled by Venice), the city's finest fifteenth-century structure.
14761575In 1464, the first printing press arrives in Italy and by 1467 the first printed book to include woodcut illustrations has been published in Rome. In Venice, the first book is printed by Johannes de Spira of Mainz in 1469; in 1476 the first book with woodcut decoration is published by the innovative typographer and printer Erhard Ratdolt of Augsburg. Soon many other Northern European printers set up shop in Venice, which by the end of the century has become the center of international book publishing. Partly because the foreign printers are often accompanied by Northern (particularly German) specialists in woodblock cutting, Venice also becomes the most flourishing center of woodcut illustration in Italy, a position it enjoys until the third quarter of the sixteenth century.
from late 15th centurySculpture and architecture are dominated by Lombard mason-artists. Foremost among these are Pietro Lombardo (ca. 14351515) and his sons Antonio (ca. 14581516) and Tullio Lombardo (ca. 14551532). In 1504, Pomponius Gauricus (ca. 1482ca. 1530) publishes his treatise on the art of sculpture (De Sculptura), extolling Tullio as the greatest sculptor of his time.
ca. 1480Marcantonio Raimondi (ca. 1480before 1534) is born near Bologna. His successful career as an engraver includes a close partnership with the painter Raphael, whose works Raimondi reproduces. He also copies many of the graphic works of the great German master Albrecht Dürer, and after Raphael's death in 1520, the works of his follower, Giulio Romano.
ca. 1482Leonardo da Vinci (14521519) enters the service of Ludovico Sforza in Milan, where he and assistants execute a version of the Virgin of the Rocks (now Paris, Louvre), and the Last Supper, one of his greatest and best-known works, for the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Leonardo leaves Milan after the fall of the Sforza family from power in 1499 and travels briefly to Venice and Mantua before resettling in Florence. He returns to Milan for seven years in 1508 in the service of Louis XII of France (r. 14981515).
1490sAldus Manutius (ca. 14501515) sets up a printing press in Venice, the new book publishing center of Europe. A scholar keenly interested in the classics, Manutius publishes editions of Greek and Roman textsmost famously the five-volume works of Aristotle (149598)as well as contemporary humanist works such as the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (23.73.10) (1499), a complex tale of erotic love and antiquarianism. The Hypnerotomachia provides an influential contribution to the rediscovery of the classical world in its employment of mythological imagery. The legacy of the Aldine Press continues after its founder's death in the hands of Aldus' son, Paulus Manutius (15121574), and grandson, Aldus Manutius the Younger (15471597).
14941495Painter, printmaker, and theoretician Albrecht Dürer (14711528) leaves his native Nuremberg for the first of two journeys to Italy (the second in 15057), staying principally in Venice, where he later produces the Virgin of the Rose Garlands (1506) altarpiece for the Confraternity of the Rosary. In Italy, Dürer admires works of classical antiquity as well as those of contemporary masters such as Andrea Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini. Dürer's sensitivity to Italianate form as well as his attention to classical proportion and perspective contribute to his renown as the most influential German artist of his time; his prints also exert a profound influence on Italian artists of this period and of future generations.
14941559Various European powers, particularly France and Spain, vie for control of several Italian city-states in a series of conflicts known as the Italian Wars (or Habsburg-Valois Wars). In 1494, Charles VIII of France (r. 148398) begins invading the Italian peninsula; in 1499, his successor Louis XII (r. 14981515) seizes Genoa and Milan, and attempts, unsuccessfully, to take Naples as well. The French defend their claims in northern Italy until 1559, when the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis establishes Spanish rule in Milan and Naples.
1497Venetian publisher Lucantonio Giunta produces an illustrated Italian edition of the Metamorphoses of Ovid (43 B.C.17 A.D.). The Augustan poet's compendium of classical myths is an essential reference for innumerable artiststhrough this period and the nextwho depict the adventures of gods, be they amorous, valorous, or treacherous.
ca. 1505Giorgione (ca. 1477/81510) paints The Tempest, an enigmatic and atmospheric work, for a private collector in Venice. His preoccupation with pastoral setting and treatment of the female nude in this and other works from his brief career look forward to an even greater development in the oeuvre of his contemporary, Titian. Giorgio Vasari (15111574), in his Lives of the Artists (1550, revised 1568), calls Giorgione the founder of modern Venetian painting.
1508Pope Julius II forms the League of Cambrai with Emperor Maximilian I, Ferdinand V of Aragon, and Louis XII of France, with the aim of ending the territorial dominance of the Republic of Venice, then in possession of an enormous empire west of the city known as the terra firma, and with possessions not only in Italy but also along the Dalmatian coast. While the republic suffers several losses in wars of the following two years, it remains a major political and economic power throughout the sixteenth century.
1511Titian (born Tiziano Vecellio, ca. 14881576), the outstanding painter of his time in northern Italy, is active as an independent master. Throughout his long and successful career, Titian is employed by the dukes of Urbino, Mantua, and Ferrara, honored by Emperor Charles V, and avidly collected by Philip II of Spain. His early paintings show the influence of Giorgione, with whom he collaborates on a series of frescoes for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi in Venice.
1513Venetian painter Lorenzo Lotto (ca. 14801556) settles in Bergamo, where he remains until 1525. There, under the patronage of Conte Alessandro Martinengo-Colleoni, Lotto paints a high altarpiece for the Church of SS. Stefano e Domenico, his first great work for the city.
15161518Titian paints an Assumption of the Virgin for the Church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice. The emotional fervor and sense of drama, dynamic forms, and lush palette of this imposing altarpiece are characteristic of the master's oeuvre, and he lends these qualities to sacred and profane subjects alike. In the years immediately following the completion of this Assunta, Titian paints three bacchanals (ca. 151822) for Duke Alfonso d'Este in Ferrara and in 1519 is contracted to paint the Pesaro Madonna (Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, completed 1526), a monumental recreation of the compositional type known as the sacra conversazione (holy conversation).
ca. 1522Correggio (active by 1514died 1534) secures a commission for the dome fresco of Parma Cathedral, for which he paints the Assumption of the Virgin (completed 1530). This illusionistic fresco full of sharply foreshortened figures is Correggio's great masterpiece, and is among the most influential works for Baroque artists in the next century.
15231524A painter of provincial birth called Il Pordenone (ca. 14831539) paints a set of organ shutters for the Duomo at Spilimbergo (in Friuli). The Assumption of the Virgin, painted on the outside of the shutters, employs an illusionistic perspective to theatrical effect. Pordenone later has a major career painting in Cremona, Piacenza (both Lombardy), and Venice.
1524Giulio Romano (ca. 14921546), a Roman painter, architect, and former pupil of Raphael, leaves Rome and enters the service of Federigo Gonzaga (15001540) in Mantua. The Palazzo del Te (completed 1534) is his finest work of the period, in both its exterior construction and opulent interior decoration, including a lavish mythological fresco cycle for the Sala di Psiche.
1527Jacopo Sansovino (14861570), having earned renown in both Rome and Florence, flees the sack of Rome and settles in Venice, where in 1529 he is placed in charge of building projects on the Piazza San Marco. By the mid-1530s, he designs three major buildings for this location: the mint, or Zecca, the Loggetta, and the Libreria Marciana, thought to be his masterpiece. The decorative program for the library includes contributions from major artists of the time, including the sculptor Alessandro Vittoria (1524/51608), and the painters Tintoretto (15191594) and Paolo Veronese (15281588).
15271536Formerly active in the workshop of Raphael, painter Perino del Vaga (Pietro Buonaccorsi) (15011547) travels to Genoa, where he works on the Palazzo del Principe of Genoese statesman Andrea Doria (14661560). Perino oversees the remodeling of the palazzo, which was damaged in a fire in 1527, and begins the decorative program of mythological and historical subjects by about 1529. A major surviving work from the palazzo is the Fall of the Giants fresco (ca. 1531) in the west salon.
late 1520sParmigianino (15031540), so called because of his birthplace, Parma, journeys from Rome to Bologna after the sack of 1527, later resettling in his native city. There he produces what is not only the great masterpiece of his career, but is also among the finest works of Mannerist painting: the Madonna dal Collo Lungo (Madonna of the Long Neck) (ca. 1535, now Florence, Uffizi). With elongated form and elegant, stylized gesture, Parmigianino achieves an epitome of grace and refinement.
1532Ludovico Ariosto (14741533) publishes the final version (first version, 1516) of Orlando Furioso, one of the greatest and most influential epic poems of its time. Continuing the unfinished Orlando Innamorato (1487) of poet Matteo Maria Boiardo, Orlando Furioso takes as its subject the medieval French hero Roland. The poem is written as a tribute to Ariosto's patrons, the Este family of Ferrara.
1545The Farnese summon Titian to Rome, where he enters their service for several months. During his stay, he paints several portraits for the family, notably the Portrait of Paul III and His Nephews (1546).
15451547The first session of the Council of Trent convenes in the city of the same name (region of Trentino-Alto Adige) with the aim of initiating reform within the Roman Catholic Church and checking the spread of Protestantism throughout Europe. It reaffirms church doctrine, asserts the authority of the Vulgate, and provides a detailed justification for the seven sacraments. The council also demands strict attention to decorum and the necessary legibility of images in sacred art. The movement known as the Counter-Reformation is largely concerned with upholding the beliefs either set forth or elucidated by the council in this and two following sessions (155152, 156263). A number of texts are produced as a result of the council's demands; of particular note is the Discorso intorno alle immagini sacre e profane of Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti (15221597), which details the responsibilities of the Christian artist.
1547After meeting Titian at Bologna in 1533, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (r. 151956) invites the master to Augsburg, where he paints a series of portraits for the emperor. Even after his return to Venice, Titian maintains contact with his Habsburg patrons, winning extraordinary favor with Charles's son and later king of Spain, Philip II (r. 155698). Around 1550, Titian begins a cycle of mythological paintings (which he refers to as poesie), many of which depict climactic scenes from the myths, to be sent to Philip at the Escorial, the monarch's palace near Madrid. He also paints several religious works for Philip.
1549Andrea Palladio (15081580), the great architect of Paduan birth, undertakes his first major commission: the renovation of the town hall, called the Basilica, in Vicenza. For the facade of this structure, he employs a motif of arches supported by slender columns, which are in turn framed by engaged piers; this is later known as the Palladian motif.
ca. 1550As the city of Genoa, formerly controlled by France and Milan, regains political and financial power, significant programs of urbanization are initiated; foremost among these is the Strada Nuova (completed 1558), a wide street fronted by a series of splendid palazzi.
1564The painter Tintoretto (15191594), much sought after by the scuole (lay devotional organizations) of Venice, begins a monumental series of paintings for the Scuola di San Rocco, on which he works for over two decades. The pictures, including scenes from the Passion of Christ, are characteristic mature works, with their unconventional perspective and expressive handling of light and shadow.
ca. 1566Greek painter Domenikos Theotokopoulos (15411614), called El Greco, travels to Venice. Trained previously in his native Crete, and later in Rome (157076), his works combine Byzantine elements with an intense color palette characteristic of Venetian paintingparticularly the works of Titian, in whose workshop El Greco may have studiedand dynamic compositional techniques influenced by Roman mannerism.
1570Andrea Palladio publishes The Four Books on Architecture (I quattro libri dell'architettura). Taking as his inspiration the treatise of ancient Roman architect/author Vitruvius, Palladio's Four Books include architectural and proportional studies based on antique models as well as his own designs. Shortly before this (1565), he begins work on the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice, one of his most important commissions. This central-plan structure exemplifies the balance and harmony that Palladio advocates throughout his career. In the following years (ca. 156670), he designs the Villa Rotonda in Vicenza, perhaps the most celebrated of the many secular structures for which he is known. Consisting of simple geometric componentsprimarily the circle and squarethe Rotonda is a masterwork of perfect symmetry, and is thought by contemporaries to manifest an architectural "ideal."
1571Venetian, Spanish, and papal ships defeat the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto, vastly diminishing both Ottoman domination of the Mediterranean and the threat of future assault.
1573Paolo Caliari, called Veronese (15281588), executes a Last Supper for the refectory of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venice. In it he includes animals, clowns, and a host of other lively characters in colorful contemporary dress. For this he is summoned before the Inquisition and charged with heresy, but is excused and made only to retitle the work after a less sacred biblical event, the Feast in the House of Levi. Veronese continues to execute characteristically splendid, brilliantly colored paintings, including the Rape of Europa and other works for the Doge's Palace in Venice, as well as sensitive portraits.
1577A fire destroys much of the Doge's Palace in Venice, including works by Titian and Veronese.
1580sPainter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (15711610) receives his artistic training in Milan. After completion of his apprenticeship, he travels to Rome (1592) and enters the service of Cardinal Francesco del Monte.
Apollo, Pan, and a Putto Blowing a Horn, 1560s
Giorgio Ghisi (Italian, Mantuan, ca. 15201582), after Francesco Primaticcio (Italian, Bolognese, 15041570)
Engraving; third state; sheet (trimmed to border line) 11 3/4 x 6 1/2 in. (29.8 x 16.5 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1949 (49.95.161)
Apulegio volgare (Apuleius in the Vernacular): Signature E2v
Author: Lucius Apuleius
Translator: Matteo Maria Boiardo
Venice: Nicolo daristotele da Ferrara & Vincenzo de Polo da Venetia, 1519, 2d ed. (1st ed., 1518)
Printed book with woodcut illustrations; 5 7/8 x 3 15/16 x 13/16 in. (15 x 10.5 x 2 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1956 (56.608.1)
Arabesque Interlace in Circle (signature B7) and Arabesque and Classical Ornament (signatures C6v and C7), ca. 1465–1527
Font designed by Giovanni Antonio Tagliente; woodcuts engraved by Piron da Carpi
From: Opera nuova che insegna a le donne a cuscire laqual e intitolata Esempio di raccammi (A New Work that Teaches Women how to Sew Entitled "Samples of Embroidery")
Publisher: Giovanantonio e i Fratelli da Sabbio, Venice, 1530
13/16 x 6 3/16 x 3/8 in. (19.8 x 15.7 x 1 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1935 (35.75.3)
Biblia Italica (Italian Bible), Book 2: Frontispiece (signature AA1)
Translator: Niccolò Malermi (or Malerbì)
Venice: Giovanni Ragazzo for Lucantonio Giunta, October 15, 1490
Book with printed text and woodcut illustrations, handcolored; 11 15/16 x 8 7/8 x 1 3/8 in. (30.3 x 22.5 x 3.5 cm)
The Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1933 (33.66)
Casket (cofanetto or scrigno), ca. 157090
Beech wood, partially gilded and painted rosewood veneer; gold powder, gold leaf, silver flakes, silver-gilt, bronze, and yellow metal; 7 3/16 x 16 3/8 x 11 3/8 in. (18.3 x 41.6 x 28.9 cm), H. with handle 10 3/8 in. (26.4 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1957 (57.25ab)
Cento favole morali (One Hundred Moral Tales): The Crow and the Serpent (page 35)
Author and illustrator: Giovanni Maria Verdizotti (15251600)
Venice: Giordano Ziletti, 1570
Printed book with woodcut illustrations; 8 7/16 x 6 5/16 x 1 1/16 in. (21.4 x 16 x 1.7 cm)
Gift of Philip Hofer, 1948 (48.165)
Childbirth bowl (scodella) with Aeneas Fleeing Troy (interior) and grotteschi (exterior); and tray (tagliere) with Pyramis and Thisbe (top) and Hercules and the Nemean Lion (bottom), ca. 1530–40
The Contest between Athena and Poseidon, ca. 1543
Antonio Fantuzzi (Italian, Bolognese, active at Fontainebleau 153745), after Rosso Fiorentino (Italian, Florentine, 14941540)
Etching; sheet, trimmed to platemark: 10 5/16 x 16 1/8 in. (26.2 x 41 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1949 (49.97.589)
Conversion of Saint Paul, 158789
Ludovico Carracci (Italian, Bolognese, 15551619)
Pen and brown ink, brush and brown wash, highlighted with white gouache and cream color oil paint over some black chalk underdrawing; Sheet: 22 3/8 x 13 5/8 in. (56.8 x 34.6 cm)
Rogers Fund and Gift of Dr. Mortimer D. Sackler, Theresa Sackler and Family, 2002 (2002.33)
The Coronation of the Virgin, after 1595
Annibale Carracci (Italian, Bolognese, 15601609)
Oil on canvas; 46 3/8 x 55 5/8 in. (117.8 x 141.3 cm)
Purchase, Bequest of Miss Adelaide Milton de Groot (18761967), by exchange, and Dr. and Mrs. Manuel Porter and sons Gift, in honor of Mrs. Sarah Porter, 1971 (1971.155)
Costumes of Roman Women
De gli habiti antichi et moderni di diverse parti del mondo libri due . . . (Of Ancient and Modern Dress of Diverse Parts of the World in Two Books . . .), 1590
De re militari (On the Military Arts): Folios 161v and 162r
Author: Roberto Valturio (Italian, 14051475)
[Verona:] Johannes Nicolai de Verona, 1472
Printed book with woodcut illustrations printed separately; captions and initials added by hand; 13 x 9 7/16 x 1 7/8 in. (33 x 24 x 4.8 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1926 (26.71.4)
Diana: From the series Gods in Niches, 1526
Giovanni (Gian) Jacopo (Giacomo) Caraglio (Italian, ca. 1500/1505–1565), after Rosso Fiorentino (Italian, Florentine, 14941540)
Engraving, as retouched by Franceso Villamena (Italian, 15641624)
Engraving (Bartsch XV.78.35); Sheet 8 1/4 x 4 1/4 in. (21 x 10.8 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelesy Fund, 1949 (49.97.233)
The Drunken Silenus ("The Tazza Farnese"), ca. 15971600
Annibale Carracci (Italian, Bolognese, 15601609)
Engraving printed in brown ink; Plate: 9 15/16 x 9 15/16 in. (25.3 x 25.3 cm) (in diameter); sheet: 12 15/16 x 11 1/8 in. (32.8 x 28.2 cm); mount: 13 15/16 x 11 1/8 in. (35.4 x 28.2 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1927 (18.104.22.168)
Fall of the Giants, ca. 1530s40s
Attributed to Girolamo Fagiuoli (Italian, active Bologna by 1539, died 1574), after Perino del Vaga (Pietro Buonaccorsi) (Italian, 15011547)
Engraving; plate 13 3/8 x 22 3/8 in. (34 x 56.8 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1949 (49.95.8)
Fascicolo di medicina
Author: Johannes de Ketham
Publisher: Johannes and Gregorius de Gregoriis, Venice, February 5, 1493
Printed book with woodcut illustrations, one of which, The Dissection, has been colored (either with stencils or by hand-pressed color blocks) in four colors (recently rebound); 16 1/2 x 11 3/4 in. (41.9 x 29.8 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1938 (38.52)
Federigo Gonzaga (15001540), 1510
Francesco Francis (Italian, Bolognese, ca. 1447ndash;1517)
Tempera on wood, transferred from wood to canvas and then again to wood; Overall 18 7/8 x 14 in. (47.9 x 35.6 cm), painted surface 17 3/4 x 13 1/2 in. (45.1 x 34.3 cm)
Bequest of Benjamin Altman, 1913 (14.40.638)
Girl with Cherries, ca. 149195
Attributed to Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis (Italian, Milanese, active by 1472, died after 1508) but possibly by Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Italian, Milanese, ca. 14671516)
Oil on wood; 19 1/4 x 14 3/4 in. (48.9 x 37.5 cm)
Marquand Collection, Gift of Henry G. Marquand, 1890 (91.26.5)
Hercules and Achelous in the Form of a Bull, ca. 152425
Giovanni (Gian) Jacopo (Giacomo) Caraglio (Italian, ca. 1500/1505–1565), after Rosso Fiorentino (Italian, Florentine, 14941540)
Engraving; sheet 8 3/8 x 6 7/8 in. (21.2 x 17.5 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1949 (49.50.208)
The Holy Family with Saints and Donors, ca. 1507
Attributed to Sebastiano del Piombo (Sebastiano Luciani) (Italian, Venetian, 1485/861547)
Oil on wood; Overall 26 1/2 x 40 1/2 in. (67.3 x 102.9 cm), painted surface 26 x 39 3/4 in. (66 x 101 cm)
Bequest of Josephine Bieber, in memory of her husband, Siegfried Bieber, 1970 (1973.155.5)
Lamentation Group, dated 1487
Italian (Faenza), probably made for a Franciscan church or convent near Faenza
Tin-glazed earthenware (majolica); H. 29 1/2 in. (74.9 cm), L. 64 in. (162.6 cm)
Inscribed on a shield within a wreath at the front of Christ's bier: / his
Rogers Fund, 1904 (04.26a-h)
The Lamentation, ca. 1582
Le Sorti intitolate giardino di pensieri (The Fates Entitled Garden of Ideas): Garden of Ideas (frontispiece)
Author: Francesco Marcolini (ca. 1500after 1559), with verses by Lodovico Dolce (15081568)
Venice: Francesco Marcolini, October 1540
Printed book with woodcut illustrations; 12 3/16 x 8 11/16 x 7/8 in. (31 x 22 x 2.3 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1937 (37.37.23)
The Marriage of Cupid and Psyche, ca. 1550
Andrea Schiavone (Andrea Medulic or Meldolla) (Italian, Venetian, ca. 1510?1563)
Oil on wood; Overall, with corners made up, 51 1/2 x 61 7/8 in. (130.8 x 157.2 cm); painted surface 50 1/2 x 61 1/2 in. (128.3 x 156.2 cm)
Purchase, Gift of Mary V. T. Eberstadt, by exchange, 1972 (1973.116)
Meditationes passionis Christi; Devote meditatione sopra la passione del nostro Signore (Devout Meditations on the Passion of Our Lord): The Raising of Lazarus, opening page (folios 1v and 2r)
Venice: Hieronymus de Sanctis & Cornelio, 1487
Printed book with woodcut illustrations; 8 11/16 x 6 5/16 x 1/2 in. (22 x 16 x 1.3 cm)
Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1933 (33.17)
The Mishneh Torah, North Italian, ca. 1457
Written by Moses Maimonides (1135–1204)
Painted by the Master of the Barbo Missal (Italian, active mid-1400s)
Tempera and gold leaf on parchment
Jointly owned by The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2013.
Purchased for the Israel Museum through the generosity of an anonymous donor; René and Susanne Braginsky, Zurich; Renée and Lester Crown, Chicago; Schusterman Foundation – Israel, Tulsa; and Judy and Michael Steinhardt, New York. Purchased for The Metropolitan Museum of Art with Director's Funds and Judy and Michael Steinhardt Gift (2013.495)
Photo © The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, for Michael and Judy Steinhardt, by Ardon Bar- Hama.
Ovidio metamorphoseos vulgare (Ovid's Metamorphoses in the Vernacular): Folio 28
Translated and paraphrased: Giovanni Bonsignore
Venice: Lucantonio Giunta, 1501, 2d ed.
Printed book with woodcut illustrations (from 1497 ed.); 11 11/16 x 8 x 13/16 in. (29.7 x 20.3 x 2 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1922 (22.16)
Poetry, ca. 146567
Engraving with applied gilding; sheet 6 9/16 x 3 1/2 in. (16.6 x 8.9 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1959 (59.570.32)
The Muse Euterpe, ca. 146567
Engraving; sheet 7 1/4 x 4 in. (18.4 x 10.2 cm)
Gift of Junius S. Morgan, 1919 (19.52.18)
Portrait of Alvise Contarini (recto) and a tethered roebuck (verso); portrait of a woman (recto) and scene in grisaille (verso), ca. 1485–95
Priapus and Lotis, third quarter of 16th century
The Rape of the Sabines, 1585
Andrea Andreani (Italian, Mantuan, 1558/591629), after a bronze relief by Giambologna (Netherlandish, 15291608)
Chiaroscuro woodcut from four blocks, on three paper panels; left panel, sheet 29 3/8 x 10 1/4 in. (74.6 x 26 cm) (trimmed to block line); center panel, sheet 29 1/2 x 12 3/4 in. (74.9 x 32.4 cm) (trimmed to block line); right panel, sheet 29 3/4 x 13 7/8 in. (75.6 x 35.2 cm) (trimmed to block line)
Rogers Fund, 1922 (22.73.3)
Saint Mark the Evangelist and Saint Sinibaldus Venerated by Members of a Lay Confraternity: Leaf from a Mariegola, ca. 142534
Cristoforo Cortese (Italian, active ca. 1390died before 1445)
Tempera and gold leaf on parchment; 11 3/8 x 8 1/4 in. (29 x 21.1 cm)
Robert Lehman Collection, 1975 (1975.1.2468)
Satyr, Statuette, 16th century (ca. 15068)
Andrea Briosco, called Riccio (Italian, 14701532)
Made in Padua, Italy
Bronze; H. 14 1/8 in. (35.9 cm)
Purchase, Gifts of Irwin Untermyer, Ogden Mills and George Blumenthal, Bequest of Julia H. Manges and Frederick C. Hewitt Fund, by exchange; and Rogers and Pfeiffer Funds, 1982 (1982.45)
Schiac Appas, Re di Persia (Shah cAbbas, King of Persia)
Engraver: Giacomo Franco (Italian, Venetian, 15501620)
From: Effigie naturali dei maggior prencipi et più valorosi capitani di questa età con l'armi loro, raccolte et con dilegentia intagliate da Giacomo Franco (Natural Likenesses of the Major Princes and Most Valorous Captains of This Age, with Their Arms, Collected and Diligently Engraved by Giacomo Franco)
Publisher: Giacomo Franco, Venice, 1596
12 x 8 3/16 x 1/2 in. (30.5 x 20.8 x 1.3 cm)
The Elisha Whittelsey Collection, The Elisha Whittelsey Fund, 1957 (57.506)
Sphaera Mundi [with other tracts]: Sphaera cum Theorcis Disputationibus Johannis Regiomontani contra Cremonensium Deliramenta Theoricas: Signatures 11v and 22
Authors: Johannes de Sacrobosco (John Holybush, died 1256); Regiomontanus (Johannes Müller of Königsberg, 14361476); Georg von Peuerbach (14231461)
[Venice:] Erhard Ratdolt, 1485
Printed books with woodcut illustrations printed in one, two, and three colors of ink; 7 5/8 x 5 3/8 x 1/2 in. (19.4 x 13.6 x 1.2 cm)
Gift of Paul J. Sachs, 1917 (17.45)