This helmet is an outstanding example of parade armor made in northern Germany for the court of Duke Heinrich the Younger of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (r. 1514–68) and his son Julius (r. 1568–89). Characteristic of the Brunswick school is the prominent and finely etched figural decoration, with historical, mythological, and biblical subjects.
The etching on this morion is exceptionally accomplished and includes (on the raised comb) portrait medallions of Alexander the Great and Antonia Sabina Augusta, wife of the Roman emperor Hadrian. The classical subjects, complex design, and horror vacui typify the northern Mannerist aesthetic. The decoration on the left side includes a shield emblazoned with three small shields—the emblem of the guild of Saint Luke, the painter's guild to which many etchers belonged. The quality and originality of the etching suggest that this helmet may have been the artist's "masterpiece," submitted to the guild by the etcher as proof that he had attained sufficient skill to be designated a master of his craft.
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Geography:Brunswick, Lower Saxony
Dimensions:H. 12 1/2 in. (31.8 cm); W. 9 5/8 in. (24.4 cm); D. 16 5/8 in. (40.3 cm); Wt. 4 lb. 8 oz. (2040 g)
Credit Line:Purchase, The Sulzberger Foundation Inc. and Ronald S. Lauder Gifts, 1999
Inscription: Inscribed on the proper left side of the comb, within a circular medallion: ALEXANDAR (refering to Alexander the Great); on the proper right side: A SABI A.G. (refering to Antonia Sabina Augusta, the wife of the Roman Emperor Hadrian).
David G. Alexander, Puycelsi, Castelnau de Montmiral, France (until 1999; sold to MMA).
New York. Brooklyn Museum. "Loan Exhibition of European Arms and Armor," June 12–October 31, 1933, no. 47.
Allentown. Allentown Art Museum. "Arms and Armor: A Loan Exhibition from the Collection of Stephen V. Grancsay: with Important Contributions by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the John Woodman Higgins Armory, Worcester, Massachusetts," March 15–June 14, 1964.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "European Helmets 1450–1650: Treasures from the Reserve Collection," January 25, 2000–December 30, 2001, no. 48.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Arms and Armor: Notable Acquisitions 1991–2002," September 4, 2002–January 18, 2004, no. 8.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Philippe de Montebello Years: Curators Celebrate Three Decades of Acquisitions," October 24, 2008–February 1, 2009.
Grancsay, Stephen V. Loan Exhibition of European Arms and Armor: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, August 3 to September 27, 1931. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1931. p. 29, no. 90, ill.
Allentown Art Museum, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, and John Woodman Higgins Armory. Arms and Armor: A Loan Exhibition from the Collection of Stephen V. Grancsay: with Important Contributions by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the John Woodman Higgins Armory, Worcester, Massachusetts: March 15–June 14, 1964. Allentown, Pa.: Allentown Art Museum, March 15, 1964–June 14, 1964. p. 40, no. 59.
Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co. Arms and Armour. London: Sotheby Parke Bernet & Co., November 1, 1983. no. 26, ill.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Recent Acquisitions: A Selection, 1998–1999. Renaissance and Baroque Europe." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (Fall 1999), p. 28, ill.
Pyhrr, Stuart W. European Helmets, 1450–1650: Treasures from the Reserve Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Jan 25, 2000 - Dec 30, 2000. pp. 4, 31, no. 48, ill.
Pyhrr, Stuart W., Donald J. La Rocca, and Morihiro Ogawa. Arms and Armor: Notable Acquisitions, 1991–2002. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2002. pp. 14–15, no. 8, ill. and fig. 4 (detail).
La Rocca, Donald J. How to Read European Armor. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2017. p. 47, fig 55; pp.108-111, fig. 124.
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