The mandarin duck corresponds to the seventh civil rank. The birds on rank badges referred to actual species but did not necessarily reflect nature; they were represented in ways that became conventional but were not always consistent. Here, for example, the mandarin duck's feet are not webbed, while the mandarin duck in the badge exhibited next to this one has webbed feet.
William Christian Paul , the Bronx, NY (until d. 1929)
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Chinese Textiles," August 6, 2008–February 8, 2009.