List of Rulers of the Ancient Greek World

See works of art
  • Gold stater
  • Tetradrachm of Seleucus I
  • Head of a Ptolemaic queen
  • Face attributed to Ptolemy II Philadelphos or a contemporary
  • Head of Ptolemy II or III
  • Head of a king as Khepri, possibly Ptolemy VI Philometor

The following abridged list of rulers for the ancient Greek world is primarily for the rulers of the Hellenistic age (323–31 B.C.), after the time of Alexander the Great. In the preceding centuries, the dominant geopolitical unit was the polis or city-state. Greek city-states were governed by a variety of entities, including kings, oligarchies, tyrants, and, as in the case of Athens, a democracy.

Rulers of Macedonia
496–168 B.C.
Alexander I
496–454 B.C.
Perdikkas II
454–413 B.C.
Archelaos I
413–399 B.C.
Aeropos II
398–395 B.C.
Amyntas II
395–394 B.C.
Amyntas III
393–370 B.C.
Perdiccas III
365–359 B.C.
Philip II
360/59–336 B.C.
Alexander III (the Great) (52.127.4)
336–323 B.C.
Philip III Arrhidaios
323–317 B.C.
Alexander IV
323–310 B.C.
317–316 B.C.
315–297 B.C.
Philip IV
297 B.C.
Antipatros and Alexander V
297–294 B.C.
Demetrios I Poliorketes ("Besieger")
294–288 B.C.
Pyrrhos of Epeiros
288/7–285 B.C.
288/7–281 B.C.
Seleukus (1974.105.9)
281 B.C.
Ptolemaios Keraunos ("Thunderbolt")
281–279 B.C.
Antigonos II Gonatas
ca. 277–239 B.C.
Demetrios II
239–229 B.C.
Antigonos III Doson
ca. 229–222 B.C.
Philip V
222–179 B.C.
179–168 B.C.
The Ptolemaic Dynasty of Egypt (2002.66)
306–30 B.C.
Ptolemy I Soter ("Savior"; governor from 323)
306–282 B.C.
Ptolemy II Philadelphos ("Sister-friend") (12.187.31)
284–246 B.C.
Ptolemy III Euergetes ("Benefactor") (66.99.134)
246–222 B.C.
Ptolemy IV Philopator ("Father-friend")
222–204 B.C.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes ("[God] Manifest")
210–180 B.C.
Cleopatra I
180–177 B.C.
Ptolemy VI Philometor ("Mother-friend") (66.99.166)
180–164, 163–145 B.C.
Cleopatra II
170–115 B.C.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II Physkon ("Potbelly")
170–163, 145–116 B.C.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator (with Ptolemy VI and briefly after the latter's death)
145–144 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Soter II Lathyros ("the Bean")
116–107, 88–81 B.C.
Cleopatra III
140–101 B.C.
Ptolemy X Alexander I
107–88 B.C.
Berenike III
100–80 B.C.
Ptolemy XI Alexander II
80 B.C.
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Auletes ("the Piper")
80–58, 55–51 B.C.
Cleopatra V
80–69 B.C.
Berenike IV and Cleopatra VI
58–55 B.C.
Ptolemy XIII
51–47 B.C.
Cleopatra VII
51–30 B.C.
Ptolemy XIV
47–44 B.C.
Caesarion (Ptolemy XV)
44–30 B.C.
Seleukos I Nikator ("Victor"; ruler from 312)
305–281 B.C.
with Antichos I Soter
294 or 293–281
Antiochos I Soter
281–261 B.C.
Antiochos II Theos ("the God")
261–246 B.C.
Seleukos II Kallinikos ("the Glorious Victor")
246–226/5 B.C.
Seleukos III
226/5–223 B.C.
Antiochos III Megas ("the Great")
223–187 B.C.
Seleukos IV Philopator
187–175 B.C.
Antiochos IV Epiphanes
175–164 B.C.
Antiochos V Eupator ("of the Good Father")
164–162 B.C.
Demetrios I Soter
162–150 B.C.
Alexander Balas (Epiphanes)
150–145 B.C.
Demetrios II Nikator
145–140, 129–126/5 B.C.
Antiochos VI Epiphanes
145–142 B.C.
Diodotos "Triophon," pretender
142–139/8 B.C.
Antiochos VII Sidetes
139/8–129 B.C.
Kleopatra Thea ("Goddess")
126/5–123 B.C.
Antiochos VIII Grypos
126/5–96 B.C.
Seleukos V
126 B.C.
Antiochos IX Philopator "of Kyzikos"
114/3–95 B.C.
Seleukos VI
95 B.C.
Antiochos X Eusebes ("the Pious") Philopator
95 B.C.
Demetrios III Philopator Soter (at Damascus)
95–88 B.C.
Antiochos XI Epiphanes Philadelphos (in Cilicia)
95 B.C.
Philip I (in Cilicia)
95–84/3 B.C.
Antiochos XII Dionysos (at Damascus)
87 B.C.
Philip II
84/3 B.C.
Antiochos XIII Philadelphos
69–63 B.C.
The Attalids, Rulers of Pergamon
283–129 B.C.
Philetairos (not king)
283–263 B.C.
Eumenes I (not formally king)
263–241 B.C.
Attalos I Soter
241–197 B.C.
Eumenes II Soter
197–159/8 B.C.
Attalos II
159/8–139/8 B.C.
Attalos III
139/8–133 B.C.
Aristonikos ("Eumenes III")
133–129 B.C.
Rulers of Pontus
ca. 280–63 B.C.
Mithridates I
ca. 280–ca. 266 B.C.
ca. 266–ca. 255 B.C.
Mithridates II
ca. 255–ca. 220 B.C.
Mithridates III
ca. 220–ca. 185 B.C.
Pharnaces I
ca. 185–ca. 170 B.C.
Mithridates IV Philopator
ca. 170–ca. 150 B.C.
Mithridates V Euergetes
ca. 150–120 B.C.
Mithridates VI Eupator, "the Great"
ca. 120–63 B.C.
Rulers of Baktria
256–55 B.C.
Diodotos I
256–248 B.C.
Diodotos II
248–235 B.C.
Euthydemos I
ca. 235–ca. 200 B.C.
Euthydemos II
ca. 200–ca. 190 B.C.
Demetrios I
ca. 200–ca. 185 B.C.
Antimachos I
ca. 195–ca. 185 B.C.
ca. 185–ca. 180 B.C.
Demetrios II
ca. 185–ca. 175 B.C.
ca. 180–ca. 165 B.C.
Eukratides I (usurper?)
ca. 171–ca. 155 B.C.
Agathokleia and Menandros
ca. 155–ca. 130 B.C.
Kalliope and Hermaios
ca. 75–ca. 55 B.C.

Department of Greek and Roman Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

October 2004



Department of Greek and Roman Art. “List of Rulers of the Ancient Greek World.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2004)