In Anatolia, the first millennium B.C. begins in a period of disruption and decentralization: new states form and regroup. Greek colonies are established in southern and western Anatolia and, later, on the Black Sea coasts. By the late eighth century B.C., the Neo-Assyrian empire, with its capital cities in Mesopotamia, confronts small kingdoms in both Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus, including Urartu, Phrygia, and (later) Lydia. From the mid-sixth century B.C., the area is ruled by Persian satraps (governors) as part of the vast Achaemenid empire. In 333 B.C., the armies of Alexander of Macedon launch their successful attack on the Persian empire. Within twenty years of Alexander’s death (323 B.C.), his empire is divided into four kingdoms. Control of Anatolia is divided between the Seleucids—who dominate Syria and Mesopotamia—and the Ptolemies of Egypt. Cities on the Aegean coast remain independent. By 200 B.C., Rome‘s imperial ambitions fuel eastward expansion; by the first century B.C., the remaining Hellenistic kingdoms become vassal states. Emperor Augustus annexes Anatolia to Rome.