In this period, Central and North Asia are fragmented into rule by small tribes collectively known as the Uzbeks. In Transoxiana, a second clan descended from Genghis Khan known as the Astrakhanids claims control after the fall of the Shaibanid dynasty. They share governmental duties with leading members of Turko-Mongol groups as well as Muslim scholars, shaikhs, and members of Sufi brotherhoods. Other powerful tribal dynasties are based in Kokand, Khiva, and Kabul. The art they sponsor continues in the Timurid tradition. In what is now the Chinese province of Xinjiang, the Qing dynasty cracks down on the Naqshbandis and other Sufi orders, which it sees as disruptive elements.
The complicated relationships between various Mongol confederations are further exacerbated by the rise of the Manchus in the northeast as well as Russian incursions into various regions. Under Nurhachi, the Manchus establish the Jin dynasty before gaining control of China, where they rule as the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Tibetan-style Buddhism continues to flourish under the Mongols, and both permanent and semi-nomadic monasteries are constructed. Sculpture and painting flourish in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, influenced by the style of Zanabazar (1635–1723) as well as continuing religious ties with Tibet.