Iraq, 1600–1800 A.D.



Parts of this province pass back into Safavid hands in the 1620s but afterwards remain part of the Ottoman empire until the early twentieth century. The Ottoman presence is negligible in the countryside—which is left for the most part to run under local chieftains—but is concentrated in Baghdad, where defenses against Persia are based, and Basra, a key port in Persian Gulf trade. The change in government is more strongly felt in the many new influences to which Iraq is exposed: under the Ottomans, the province becomes part of the trade between India, Turkey, and the Mediterranean, and many Europeans pass through as Iran also opens up to international commerce.


“Iraq, 1600–1800 A.D.” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2003)