The Ottomans occupy Yemen and the Arabian Peninsula at the beginning of this period. As in all of their provinces, their presence is minimal outside of the major cities. After the 1600 chartering of the East India Company, the British start to compete with Dutch, Portuguese, and French concerns for control of the lucrative Persian Gulf trade, but the region itself does not benefit from this boon as European traders have found sea routes to circumvent the overland transport of goods through Arabia. Ottoman control of Yemen ends in 1635, and the Shi‘i Zaidi imams return to power at San‘a. In Oman, the al-Bu-Sa‘id clan takes Muscat as their capital, and in Saudi Arabia the present line of kings—the al-Sa‘ud dynasty—is established in 1746.