The Spanish Singer

Édouard Manet (French, Paris 1832–1883 Paris)

Oil on canvas
58 x 45 in. (147.3 x 114.3 cm)
Credit Line:
Gift of William Church Osborn, 1949
Accession Number:
  • Gallery Label

    Manet's painting reflects the vogue in Paris for the art and culture of Spain during the Second Empire, as well as the artist's own preoccupation with Spanish themes in the 1860s. "The Spanish Singer" won Manet his first critical and popular success in his debut at the Salon of 1861. He composed the work in his studio using a model and props; the singer's broad-brimmed hat and bolero jacket were worn again by Victorine Meurent when she posed for the 1862 canvas "Madamoiselle V . . . in the Costume of an Espada" (Metropolitan Museum).

    "The Spanish Singer" inspired a group of young artists, among them Henri Fantin-Latour and Carolus-Duran, to make a pilgrimage to Manet's studio, helping to establish him as a leader of the avant-garde.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed and dated (right, on bench): ed. Manet 1860

  • Provenance

    the artist, Paris (1860–72; on deposit with Théodore Duret, Paris, September 1870–1871; sold January 1872 for Fr 3,000 to Durand-Ruel); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1872–73; stock no. 934; sold January 3, 1873 for Fr 7,000 to Faure]; Jean-Baptiste Faure, Paris (1873–1906; on deposit with Durand-Ruel, Paris, January 20, 1906 [date book no. L.10909]; sold April 17, 1906 for Fr 20,000 to Durand-Ruel; inv. 1902, no. 29); [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1906–7; stock no. 8136; sold May 2, 1907 for Fr 150,000 to Osborn]; William Church Osborn, New York (1907–49)

  • Exhibition History

    Paris. Salon. May 1–?, 1861, no. 2098.

    Paris. Galerie Martinet. October 1–15, 1861, no cat. number [see Leenhoff 1883].

    Paris. Avenue de l'Alma. "Tableaux de M. Édouard Manet," May 1867, no. 3.

    Marseilles. Société artistique des Bouches-du-Rhône. December 1868–?, no catalogue? [see Manet 1869].

    Munich. Königlichen Glaspalaste. "I. Internationale Kunstausstellung," July 20–October 31, 1869, no. 1384 (as "Spanischer Sänger").

    London. Durand-Ruel. "Fourth Exhibition of the Society of French Artists," Summer 1872, no. 38 [see Cooper 1954].

    Paris. École Nationale des Beaux-Arts. "Exposition des œuvres de Édouard Manet," January 6–28, 1884, no. 8 (lent by J. B. Faure).

    Paris. Exposition Internationale Universelle. "Exposition centennale de l'art français (1789–1889)," May–November 1889, no. 486.

    Paris. Durand-Ruel. "Exposition de 24 tableaux et aquarelles par Manet formant la collection Faure," March 1–31, 1906, no. 7.

    New York. Durand-Ruel. "Loan Exhibition: Paintings by Édouard Manet, 1832–1883," November 29–December 13, 1913, no. 3.

    New York. Durand-Ruel. "Loan Exhibition of French Masterpieces of the Late XIX Century," March 20–April 10, 1928, no. 10 (lent anonymously).

    New York. Durand-Ruel. "Important Paintings by Great French Masters of the Nineteenth-century," February 12–March 10, 1934, no. 30 (lent anonymously).

    New York. Century Club. "French Masterpieces of the Nineteenth Century," January 11–February 10, 1936, no. 10 (lent by William Church Osborn).

    New York. Wildenstein & Co., Inc.. "Édouard Manet, 1832–1883," March 19–April 17, 1937, no. 3 (lent by Mr. and Mrs. William Church Osborn).

    New York. World's Fair. "Masterpieces of Art: European & American Paintings, 1500–1900," May–October 1940, no. 283 (lent by William Church Osborn).

    New York. M. Knoedler & Co.. "Loan Exhibition in Honour of Royal Cortissoz," December 1–20, 1941, no. 22 (lent anonymously).

    New York. Wildenstein. "Manet," February 26–April 3, 1948, no. 5 (lent by William Church Osborn).

    Paris. Petit Palais. "Baudelaire," November 23, 1968–March 17, 1969, no. 579.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Manet, 1832–1883," April 22–August 1, 1983, no. 10.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet, 1832–1883," September 10–November 27, 1983, no. 10.

    Paris. Musée d'Orsay. "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," September 16, 2002–January 12, 2003, no. 72.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting," March 4–June 8, 2003, no. 131.

    Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado. "Manet en el Prado," October 13, 2003–February 8, 2004, no. 25.

    Martigny. Fondation Pierre Gianadda. "The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Chefs-d'œuvre de la peinture européenne," June 23–November 12, 2006, no. 43.

    Barcelona. Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya. "Grandes maestros de la pintura europea de The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Nueva York: De El Greco a Cézanne," December 1, 2006–March 4, 2007, no. 35.

    Berlin. Neue Nationalgalerie. "Französische Meisterwerke des 19.Jahrhunderts aus dem Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," June 1–October 7, 2007, unnumbered cat.

    Madrid. Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía. "The Spanish Night: Flamenco, Avant-Garde and Popular Culture, 1865–1936," December 21, 2007–March 24, 2008, unnumbered cat. (p. 192).

    Paris. Petit Palais. "The Spanish Night: Flamenco, Avant-Garde and Popular Culture, 1865–1936," July 5–August 31, 2008, unnumbered cat. (p. 192).

  • References

    Hector de Callias. "Salon de 1861: Les lettres K. L. M. N. O. P." L'Artiste 12 (July 1, 1861), p. 7.

    Théophile Gautier. Le moniteur universel (July 3, 1861) [reprinted in Théophile Gautier, "Abécédaire du Salon de 1861," Paris, pp. 264–65], observes the influence of Velàzquez and Goya and notes that it received an honorable mention at the Salon.

    Léon Lagrange. "Salon de 1861 (suite)." Gazette des beaux-arts 11 (July 1861), p. 52.

    Louis Martinet. Courrier artistique (October 15, 1861), p. 34 [see Ref. Sterling and Salinger 1967], lists it among pictures exhibited at 26 Boulevard des Italiens.

    Charles Baudelaire. "Peintres et aquafortistes." Le boulevard (September 14, 1862) [reprinted in Michel Florisoone, "Manet," Monaco, 1947, p. 113].

    Paul Mantz. "Exposition du Boulevard des Italiens." Gazette des beaux-arts 14 (April 1863), p. 383.

    Edwin Edwards. Letter to Fantin-Latour. May 1865 [published in Robin Spencer, "Manet, Rossetti, London and Derby Day," Burlington Magazine 133 (April 1991), p. 234], states that he found Manet's canvas in the basement of the Royal Academy, but has seen only the back, where the title is given as something to do with a "guitarre" [sic].

    Théodore Duret. Les peintres français en 1867. Paris, 1867, p. 111 [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

    Édouard Manet. Letter to a patron. [June] 10, [1867] [published and translated in Juliet Wilson-Bareau, "Manet by Himself," Boston, 1991, p. 46], mentions this work in discussing the etching after it.

    E. Spuller. "M. Édouard Manet et sa peinture." Le nain jaune (June 9, 1867) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

    Émile Zola. "Une nouvelle manière en peinture: Édouard Manet." Revue du XIXe siècle, 8e sér., 4 (January 1, 1867), p. 55, comments on the ease with which the public accepted this picture.

    Paul Mantz. "Salon de 1868, II." L'illustration (June 6, 1868) [translated and reprinted in George Heard Hamilton, "Manet and His Critics," New Haven, 1954, p. 120], comments that the colors and brushwork are reminiscent of the seventeenth-century Spanish masters.

    Édouard Manet. Letter to Émile Zola. [early 1869] [published and translated in Juliet Wilson-Bareau, "Correspondence & Conversation, Manet by Himself: Paintings, Pastels, Prints & Drawings," London, 1991, p. 49], says that he sent this painting to the Société artistique des Bouches-du-Rhône.

    F. A. Marion. Letter to Émile Zola. [before May 1869] [published in C. Becker, ed. "Letters from Manet to Émile Zola," in "Manet, 1832–1883," New York, 1983, p. 522 n. 1], comments that Manet had sent three works to the 1868 Marseilles exhibition, including this one, with a view to selling them, but that unfortunately the Société Artistique des Bouches-du-Rhône was not interested in purchasing any of them, and bought a Millet instead.

    F. A. Marion. Letter to Émile Zola. January 2, 1869 [published in C. Becker, ed. "Letters from Manet to Émile Zola," in "Manet, 1832–1883," New York, 1983, p. 522 n. 1, under no. 13], remarks on the "incredible" reception that this work had at the 1868 Marseilles exhibition.

    Eugène Muntz. "Exposition internationale de Munich." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 2 (October 1869), p. 309.

    Théodore Duret. Letter to Édouard Manet. September 16, 1870 [published in A. Tabarant, "Manet et ses œuvres," Paris, 1947, p. 183], acknowledges that this work was deposited in his gallery for safe-keeping, but belongs to Manet.

    Jules Claretie. "Salon de 1872." Le soir (May 25, 1872) [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

    Édouard Manet. Memorandum of Paintings Sold to Durand-Ruel. [January–February 1872] [published and translated in Ref. Wilson-Bareau 1991, p. 163], notes that Manet sold it to Durand-Ruel for Fr 3,000.

    Armand Silvestre. Galerie Durand-Ruel, recueil d'estampes, gravées à l'eau-forte. Paris, 1873, pp. 24–25, pl. XIX (engraving by Ch. Courtry).

    Paul Alexis. "Marbres et platres III Manet." Le voltaire (July 25, 1879), p. ?.

    Paul Alexis. "Manet." La revue moderne et naturaliste (1880), pp. 189–95 [see Ref. Rouart and Wildenstein 1975].

    Gustave Goetschy. "Édouard Manet." La vie moderne, cinquième année, 19 (May 12, 1883), p. 306?.

    Léon Leenhoff. Agenda de Manet 1883. 1883 [published in Anthea Callen, "Jean-Baptiste Faure, 1830–1914: A Study of a Patron and Collector of the Impressionists and their Contemporaries," Master's Thesis, University of Leicester, 1971, p. 625], lists it as being exhibited at the Galerie Martinet, October 1–15, 1861.

    Edmond Bazire. Manet. Paris, 1884, pp. 20–22.

    Jacques de Biez. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1884, pp. 34–35, 57.

    Frédéric Gilbert. "Manet jugé par Faure." Le Gaulois, 3rd ser., (January 6, 1884), p. 1, quotes Faure as saying that this picture was known as "le Gaucher" because the man plays the guitar with his left hand.

    Louis Gonse. "Manet." Gazette des beaux-arts, 2nd ser., 29 (February 1884), pp. 137–38.

    Paul Mantz. "Les Œuvres de Manet." Le Temps (January 16, 1884), p. 3.

    Joséphin Péladan. "Le procédé de Manet d'après l'exposition de l'École des Beaux-Arts." L'Artiste, 54 année, 1 (February 1884), pp. 106–7.

    L. de Fourcaud. "Exposition centennale de l'art français. IV." Revue de l'exposition universelle de 1889. Paris, 1889, p. 51.

    Armand Dayot. Un siècle d'art: Notes sur la peinture française à l'exposition centennale des beaux-arts. Paris, 1890, p. 114, as in the Faure collection.

    Antonin Proust. "L'art d'Édouard Manet." Le studio (January 15, 1901), pp. 72–73.

    Théodore Duret. Histoire d'Édouard Manet et de son œuvre. Paris, 1902, pp. 17–18, 196, no. 23, suggests that the model belonged to a troupe of dancers and musicians.

    Notice sur la collection J.-B. Faure suivie du catalogue des tableaux formant cette collection. Paris, 1902, p. 19, no. 29.

    Hugo v. Tschudi. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1902, pp. 7, 16, ill., notes that it is reminiscent of Velàzquez's "Borrachos" (Museo del Prado, Madrid).

    Camille Mauclair. L'impressionnisme, son histoire, son esthétique, ses maitres. Paris, 1904, pp. 49, 65.

    Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manuscrit de l'œuvre d'Édouard Manet, peinture et pastels. [1906], unpaginated, no. 27 [Département des Estampes, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris].

    Camille de Sainte-Croix. "Édouard Manet." Portraits d'hier (December 15, 1909) [reprinted in T. A. Gronberg, "Manet: A Retrospective," as "A Collegian and Manet," New York, 1990, p. 137], remarks that he saw it at a sale of Manet's works.

    Emil Waldmann. "Französische Bilder in amerikanischem Privatbesitz II." Kunst und Künstler 9 (December 1910), p. 134, notes that Manet used the same costume for "Mademoiselle V . . . in the Costume of an Espada" (MMA 29.100.53).

    Paul Durand-Ruel. Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel. 1911–12 [published in Lionello Venturi, "Les archives de l'impressionnisme," Paris, 1939, vol. 2, p. 190, no. 23], gives provenance information.

    G. J. Wolf. "Édouard Manet." Die Kunst für Alle 26 (January 1, 1911), p. 148, ill.

    B[ryson]. B[urroughs]. "Recent Loans: Paintings." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 7 (August 1912), p. 152.

    Théodore Duret. Manet and the French Impressionists. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1910]. London, 1912, pp. 26, 33, 100, 222, no. 23, ill. opp. p. 26.

    Jean Laran and Georges Le Bas. Manet. Paris, 1912, pp. 21–22, illustrates Manet's etching after it.

    Julius Meier-Graefe. Édouard Manet. Munich, 1912, pp. 55, 310, pl. 29, asserts that the Spanish singer I. Bosch was the model for this work and also for a lithograph made by Manet's friend Bracquemond.

    Antonin Proust. "Erinnerungen an Édouard Manet." Kunst und Künstler 11 (March 1913), pp. 142–43, ill.

    Antonin Proust. Édouard Manet. Paris, 1913, pp. 40–42, 144, gives Manet's account of the rapid painting of this picture and notes that it was pointed out to him that he had made the guitarist finger the instrument with the wrong hand; mentions the watercolor of this subject.

    Emil Waldmann. "Leible und die Franzosen." Kunst und Künstler 12 (October 1913), p. 48.

    Paul Jamot. "La collection Camondo au Musée du Louvre: Les peintures et les dessins (deuxième article)." Gazette des beaux-arts, 4th ser., 11 (June 1914), p. 442.

    Willard Huntington Wright. Modern Painting: Its Tendency and Meaning. New York, 1915, p. 67, notes his shock at this work having received an honorable mention at the Salon of 1861; calls this Manet's "first Spanish adaptation," noting the influences of Goya, Murillo, Velázquez, and Courbet.

    Jacques-Émile Blanche. De David à Degas. Paris, 1919, p. 150.

    Waldemar George in André Fontainas and Louis Vauxcelles. Histoire générale de l'art français de la révolution à nos jours. Paris, 1922, pp. 113, 117, ill., sees the influence of Franz Hals.

    Tristan Klingsor. "Manet." L'Amour de l'art 3 (1922), pp. 258, 266, ill.

    Emil Waldmann. Édouard Manet. Berlin, 1923, pp. 24, 32, 109, ill.

    J.-E. Blanche. Manet. London, 1925, fig. 6.

    Léon Rosenthal. "Manet et l'Espagne." Gazette des beaux-arts, 5th ser., 12 (1925), pp. 205, 208–9, 211, ill., notes that this work is reminiscent of Velàzquez rather than Goya.

    Étienne Moreau-Nélaton. Manet raconté par lui-même. Paris, 1926, vol. 1, pp. 31–33, fig. 21.

    A. Tabarant. Manet, histoire catalographique. Paris, 1931, pp. 57–59, no. 34, notes that Manet made an etching and a watercolor after it.

    Paul Jamot and Georges Wildenstein. Manet. Paris, 1932, vol. 1, pp. 21–22, 75, 89, 119, no. 40; vol. 2, fig. 36, state that the model was Jérôme Bosch, a dancer of the Spanish troupe of the Hippodrome.

    "Notes biographiques." L'Amour de l'art 13 (May 1932), p. 146.

    Daniel Catton Rich. "The Spanish Background for Manet's Early Work." Parnassus 4 (February 1932), pp. 2–4, ill.

    E. Lambert. "Manet et l'Espagne." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 9 (June 1933), pp. 374–75, fig. 15.

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "Manet: First American Retrospective." Art News 35 (March 20, 1937), p. 14, calls it Caravaggesque.

    John Rewald. "Durand-Ruel: 140 Years. One Man's Faith." Art News 42 (December 1–14, 1943), p. 24.

    Preface by Edward Alden Jewell in French Impressionists and Their Contemporaries Represented in American Collections. New York, 1944, p. 141, ill. (color).

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946, pp. 44–45, 225, ill.

    A. Tabarant. Manet et ses œuvres. 4th ed. (1st. ed. 1942). Paris, 1947, pp. 41–43, 102, 136, 195, 491, 512, 534, no. 38, fig. 38, suggests that the popularity of the guitarist Huerta inspired this picture for which Manet used a Sevillian as a model.

    A Loan Exhibition of Manet. Exh. cat., Wildenstein & Co., Inc. New York, 1948, pp. 16–17, 35, 51, no. 5, pl. 5.

    Joseph C. Sloane. French Painting Between the Past and the Present: Artists, Critics, and Traditions, from 1848 to 1870. [reprint 1973]. Princeton, 1951, pp. xii, 185–86, 192, fig. 55, discusses the contemporary critical reception of this painting.

    George Heard Hamilton. Manet and His Critics. New Haven, 1954, pp. 24–31, 38, 58, 67, 96, 111, 114, 141, 155, 157, 264, pl. 3, reprints and discusses contemporary criticism of this painting.

    Nils Gösta Sandblad. Manet: Three Studies in Artistic Conception. Lund, 1954, pp. 17, 46–47, refers to this as a portrait of the guitar-player Huerta.

    Georges Bataille. Manet: Biographical and Critical Study. New York, 1955, pp. 7, 10.

    J.-L. Vaudoyer. E. Manet. Paris, [1955], unpaginated, no. 8, ill. (overall and detail).

    John Richardson. Édouard Manet: Paintings and Drawings. London, 1958, pp. 11–12, 16, 118, under no. 4, notes that the watercolor of this work could be either a sketch for the MMA picture or a reduction made after it, perhaps done in preparation for the engraving of the same size; mentions that the subject is derived from a print by Goya as well as Greuze's "Mandoliniste" (Musée du Louvre, Paris), which Manet probably knew from the engraving; contends that although the Andalusian guitarist Huerta inspired the composition, neither he nor Jérôme Bosch sat for the composition, but rather an anonymous Sevillian model who was either left-handed or unable to hold a guitar.

    Jacques Lethève. Impressionnistes et symbolistes devant la presse. Paris, 1959, pp. 19, 22, 279 n. 3.

    Henri Perruchot. La vie de Manet. Paris, 1959, pp. 98, 100, 102–4, 108, 122, 136, 187, 230, 326–27, cites contemporary criticism.

    Jean Vallery-Radot. "Le dessin préparatoire de Greuze pour 'L'Oiseleur accordant sa guitare'." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 54 (October 1959), p. 215, finds the pose similar to that of Greuze's "L'oiseleur accordan sa guitare," which exists in three oil versions as well as in a drawing and engraving (figs. 1, 2).

    John Richardson. Letter to M. Salinger. January 5, 1960, discusses the identity of the sitter.

    Alan Bowness. "A Note on 'Manet's Compositional Difficulties'." Burlington Magazine 103 (June 1961), p. 277, observes that Manet underplays spatial recession in this picture by "creating a strong linear construction that brings everything near to the surface of the picture".

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. rev., enl. ed. New York, 1961, pp. 50–53, 187, 272, ill. (color).

    Pierre Courthion. Édouard Manet. New York, 1962, pp. 15, 64–65, ill. (color), notes that its paint application is reminiscent of Courbet.

    Emanuel Winternitz. Memo to Mrs. Harris. February 13, 1962, remarks that what the guitarist "sings may not be proper but the playing method is okay. It is a realistic representation. He is a left-hander but that is not unusual".

    A. Tabarant. La Vie artistique au temps de Baudelaire. 2nd ed. (1st ed. 1942). [Paris], 1963, pp. 282–83, 296, 313, 415.

    Anne Coffin Hanson. Édouard Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., Philadelphia Museum of Art. Philadelphia, 1966, pp. 67, 69, 183, suggests that Greuze's mandolin player (Musée du Louvre, Paris) was not the only source for this picture, noting that Couture did a fife player that Manet must have known, and that Manet must also have been familiar with the engraving by David Teniers of a mandolin player sitting on a low horizontal block in a similar pose with a similar bench and jug in the background; agrees that this is not a portrait of Jérôme Bosch, noting that Manet made his lithograph portrait for a cover of instrumental music and that that portrait bears no resemblance to this picture.

    Alan Bowness. "Manet and Mallarmé." Philadelphia Museum of Art Bulletin 62 (April–June 1967), p. 213, suggests that this was done deliberately to appeal to Théodore Gautier.

    Joel Isaacson. "The Early Paintings of Claude Monet." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1967, pp. 80, 191, 289 n. 12.

    Sandra Orienti in The Complete Paintings of Manet. New York, 1967, pp. 89–90, no. 33, ill.

    Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX–XX Centuries." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3, New York, 1967, pp. 27–30, ill.

    Herbert Cahoon. Letter to Margaretta M. Salinger. April 19, 1968, believes that the guitarist Bosch posed for this picture.

    Anne Coffin Hanson. "Manet's Subject Matter and a Source of Popular Imagery." Museum Studies 3 (1968), p. 66.

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill.

    Pierre Schneider. The World of Manet, 1832–1883. New York, 1968, pp. 22–23.

    Beatrice Farwell. "Manet's 'Espada' and Marcantonio." Metropolitan Museum Journal 2 (1969), p. 206, notes that the bolero, hat, and headscarf worn by the model in this picture also appear in the MMA's "Mademoiselle V. . . in the Costume of an Espada" (29.100.53) and "Young Man in the Costume of a Majo" (29.100.54).

    Joel Isaacson. Manet and Spain, Prints and Drawings. Exh. cat., The Museum of Art, The University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, Mich., 1969, pp. 3–4, 7, 11–12, 15, 27–28, under no. 9, discusses the etching and suggests another possible source for the composition in the engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi of "Jean-Philotée Achillini (Joueur de guitare)".

    Alain De Leiris. The Drawings of Édouard Manet. Berkeley, 1969, pp. 11, 105, fig. 202, illustrates the oil, the watercolor, the etching, and the tracing and discusses the sequence in which they were done.

    Kermit S. Champa and Kate H. Champa. German Painting of the Nineteenth Century. Exh. cat., Yale University Art Gallery. New Haven, 1970, p. 59, notes that it was included in 1869 in the first international art exhibition in Munich.

    Jean C. Harris. Édouard Manet: Graphic Works, A Definitive Catalogue Raisonné. New York, 1970, p. 51, illustrates the watercolor and four states of the etching; discusses the identification of the sitter, arguing that it is not Jérôme Bosch, but rather "an unidentified picturesque model" that Manet saw on the street.

    E[gbert]. Haverkamp-Begemann and Anne-Marie S. Logan. European Drawings and Watercolors in the Yale University Art Gallery, 1500-1900. New Haven, 1970, vol. 1, p. 81.

    Anthea Callen. "Jean-Baptiste Faure, 1830–1914: A Study of a Patron and Collector of the Impressionists and their Contemporaries." Master's thesis, University of Leicester, 1971, pp. 226–26a, provides provenance information; includes a reprint of the catalogue of Faure's collection first published in 1902, where this work appears as no. 29; also reprints excerpts from the Manet documents in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, mentioning its exhibition at the Galerie Martinet in 1861 and its original sale to Durand-Ruel in 1872.

    Julián Gállego. "Goya en el arte moderno." Goya (January–February 1971), pp. 256–57.

    Germain Bazin. Édouard Manet. Milan, 1972, pp. 8, 14–15, 75, ill. [French ed., 1974].

    Anita Brookner. Greuze: The Rise and Fall of an Eighteenth-century Phenomenon. Greenwich, Conn., 1972, p. 97, agrees that Greuze's "Un oiseleur, qui, au retour de la chasse, accorde sa guitare" (National Museum, Warsaw) is a source for the pose of Manet's Spanish singer, commenting that Greuze seems to have derived it from Orazio Gentileschi's "Lute Player" (Galleria Doria-Pamphilj, Rome).

    Kermit Swiler Champa. Studies in Early Impressionism. New Haven, 1973, p. 52, fig. 72, comments that Renoir recalled this and other paintings by Manet of theatrical performers when he painted "The Clown" (Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller, Otterlo) in 1868.

    Carl R. Baldwin The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Impressionist Epoch. [New York], 1974, p. 12.

    Anthea Callen. "Faure and Manet." Gazette des beaux-arts 83 (March 1974), pp. 162, 172–73, 176 n. 25, p. 178 n. 105, provides provenance information.

    George Mauner. Manet, Peintre-Philosophe: A Study of the Painter's Themes. University Park, Pa., 1975, pp. 156–59, fig. 98, suggests that the model was a professional guitarist.

    Denis Rouart and Daniel Wildenstein. Édouard Manet, catalogue raisonné. Paris, 1975, vol. 1, pp. 3, 11–12, 17, 24, 50–51, no. 32, ill.; vol. 2, p. 166, state that the identity of the model cannot be established with certainty.

    Mario Amaya and Eric M. Zafran. Treasures from The Chrysler Museum at Norfolk and Walter P. Chrysler, Jr. Exh. cat., Tennessee Fine Arts Center at Cheekwood, Nashville. Norfolk, Va., 1977, unpaginated, no. 46, notes its influence on Robert Henri's "Gypsy with Guitar" (Chrysler Museum, Norfolk).

    Anne Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradition. New Haven, 1977, pp. 22, 36, 59–60, 76, 159, 161, fig. 5.

    Seymour Howard. "Early Manet and Artful Error: Foundations of Anti-Illusion in Modern Painting." Art Journal 37 (Fall 1977), p. 15.

    David Alston. "What's in a Name? 'Olympia' and a Minor Parnassian." Gazette des beaux-arts, 6th ser., 91 (April 1978), pp. 149, 153 n. 8.

    Alan Bowness in Gustave Courbet, 1819–1877. Exh. cat., Grand Palais, Paris. London, 1978, p. 14 [French ed., 1977], suggests that Manet painted this work for Gautier.

    Gabriel P. Weisberg in The Other Nineteenth Century: Paintings and Sculpture in the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph M. Tanenbaum. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Canada. Ottawa, 1978, p. 160, notes similarities to T. Ribot's "Mandolin Player" of 1862 (Tanenbaum collection).

    Ian Dunlop. Degas. New York, 1979, p. 52.

    Anne Distel. Hommage à Claude Monet (1840–1926). Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. Paris, 1980, p. 45.

    Alain De Leiris. "Manet and El Greco: 'The Opera Ball'." Arts Magazine 55 (September 1980), p. 97.

    Gabriel P. Weisberg. The Realist Tradition: French Painting and Drawing 1830–1900. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1980, p. 302.

    Charles F. Stuckey. "What's Wrong with this Picture?" Art in America 69 (September 1981), pp. 100–101, ill. (color), notes that the figure is playing an impossible chord on a guitar that is upside-down.

    Robert F. Chirico. "Some Reflections on Sound and Silence in the Visual Arts." Arts Magazine 56 (April 1982), p. 102, fig. 5.

    Raymond Cogniat and Michel Hoog. Manet. Paris, 1982, p. 13.

    Françoise Cachin in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 47, 122, 146, 148, 280 [French ed., Paris, 1983].

    Pierre Daix. La vie de peintre d'Édouard Manet. Paris, 1983, pp. 63, 69, 95, 100.

    Anne Coffin Hanson in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, p. 23 [French ed., "Manet, 1832–1883," Paris, 1983, p. 23].

    Michel Melot in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1983, p. 37 [French ed., "Manet, 1832–1883," Paris, 1983, p. 36].

    Charles S. Moffett in Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 30, 33, 54, 63–67, 75, 106, 109–10, 203, no. 10, ill. (color, overall, detail, and x-ray detail) [French ed., Paris, 1983, pp. 29, 32, 54, 63–67, 75, 106, 110, 203, no. 10, ill.].

    Charles F. Stuckey. Manet. Mount Vernon, N.Y., 1983, p. 7, colorpl. 1, points out a series of incongruous details in the work, concluding that "the artist's rationale was to show the inherent paradox involved in realist painting".

    Denys Sutton. "Édouard Manet: The Artist as Dandy." Apollo 118 (October 1983), p. 333, fig. 6.

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Charles S. Moffett and Françoise Cachin. Manet, 1832–1883. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1983, pp. 68–70, 138 [French ed., 1983], discusses Manet's etching (no. 11, ill.) after this painting.

    Roy McMullen. Degas: His Life, Times, and Work. Boston, 1984, p. 96, calls its exhibition at the Salon of 1861 "an immediate critical, official, and popular success".

    Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 24–25, ill. (color, overall and detail).

    Kathleen Adler. Manet. Oxford, 1986, pp. 32–33, 77, 101, fig. 19 (color), quotes from contemporary reviews.

    Maureen C. O'Brien in Maureen C. O'Brien. In Support of Liberty: European Paintings at the 1883 Pedestal Fund Art Loan Exhibition. Exh. cat., Parrish Art Museum. Southampton, N.Y., 1986, p. 176, under no. 73, notes that this painting was exhibited at the 1869 International Exhibition in Munich, which "marked a turning point in German appreciation of French realist painting"; compares it to Ribot's "The Mandolin Player" (collection Joey and Toby Tanenbaum, Toronto) and "The Scullion" (Art Institute of Chicago).

    Sjraar van Heutgen et al. in Franse meesters uit het Metropolitan Museum of Art: Realisten en Impressionisten. Exh. cat., Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1987, p. 15.

    Gary Tinterow et al. Capolavori impressionisti dei musei americani. Exh. cat., Museo di Capodimonte, Naples. Milan, 1987, p. 110.

    Gary Tinterow et al. "Modern Europe." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 8, New York, 1987, pp. 6, 12, colorpl. 1.

    Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1989, pp. 54, 58–59.

    Horst Keller. Edouard Manet. Munich, 1989, pp. 23–24, colorpl. 8, remarks that the sitter formed part of the Spanish troupe of Mariano Camprubi.

    Françoise Cachin. Manet. [Paris], 1990, pp. 28, 156, colorpl. 4.

    Anne Distel. Impressionism: The First Collectors. New York, 1990, pp. 77–78, affirms that Faure bought it on January 3, 1873 for Fr 7,000.

    Kermit S. Champa. The Rise of Landscape Painting in France: Corot to Monet. Exh. cat., IBM Gallery. Manchester, N.H., 1991, p. 55 n. 59.

    Éric Darragon. Manet. Paris, 1991, pp. 54, 62–63, 65, 79, 82, 101, 104, 130–31, 170, 207, 212, 268, 377, colorpls. 2 and 30 (overall and detail).

    Robin Spencer. "Manet, Rossetti, London and Derby Day." Burlington Magazine 133 (April 1991), pp. 228–29, 233, fig. 1, identifies this picture as a work submitted by Manet to the Royal Academy exhibition of 1865, and accepted, but not exhibited because of lack of space, basing his argument on a letter from Edwin Edwards to Fantin-Latour of May 1865.

    Sarah Carr-Gomm. Manet. London, 1992, pp. 10, 11, 44–45, 140, ill. (color).

    Alisa Luxenberg in Spain, Espagne, Spanien: Foreign Artists Discover Spain, 1800–1900. Exh. cat., Equitable Gallery. New York, 1993, p. 26.

    Vivien Perutz. Édouard Manet. Lewisburg, Pa., 1993, pp. 76–78, 80–82, 84, 88, 115, 215 n. 62, colorpl. 9.

    Françoise Cachin. Manet: "J'ai fait ce que j'ai vu". Paris, 1994, pp. 30–31, 116, ill. (color) [English ed., 1995, pp. 30–32, 116, ill. (color)].

    Henri Loyrette in Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 302–3, 321, 323, 343, 395, 397–98, fig. 368 [French ed., Paris, 1994, pp. 302–3, 322, 324, 342, 392, 395–96, fig. 368].

    Beth Archer Brombert. Édouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat. Boston, 1996, pp. 86, 88–89, 101, 119, 155, 309, 443.

    Michael Fried. Manet's Modernism: or, The Face of Painting in the 1860s. Chicago, 1996, pp. 1, 7, 36, 239, 276, 332, 473 n. 65, p. 534 n. 19, pp. 588–89 n. 193.

    Hans Körner. Edouard Manet: Dandy, Flaneur, Maler. Munich, 1996, pp. 25–27, colorpl. 12.

    Alan Krell. Manet and the Painters of Contemporary Life. London, 1996, pp. 9, 20, 77, 194, fig. 3.

    Impressionist and Nineteenth Century Art. Christie's, New York. May 5–6, 1998, p. 113, fig. 1.

    Fred Licht. Manet. Milan, 1998, pp. 22–23, pl. 6.

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau. Manet, Monet, and the Gare Saint-Lazare. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Art. New Haven, 1998, pp. 15–16, observes that the cigarette butt on the floor beneath Manet's right foot in Fantin-Latour's "A Studio in the Batignolles" (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) recalls the stub in this picture.

    Carol Armstrong. Manet Manette. New Haven, 2002, pp. 11, 17, 28, 46, 72, 81–84, 94, 96–97, 99, 108, 139, 339 nn. 8, 21, p. 343 n. 64, fig. 38.

    Peter Meller. "Manet in Italy: Some Newly Identified Sources for his Early Sketchbooks." Burlington Magazine 144 (February 2002), p. 102, relates it to sketch Manet made of Danaë from Perino del Vaga's "Jupiter and Danaë".

    Richard Shone. The Janice H. Levin Collection of French Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2002, p. 89, fig. 43.

    Valeriano Bozal in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 86, 403–4.

    Françoise Cachin in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 31, 376.

    Ángel González García in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 102–4, 111, 411, 416, fig. 44 (color detail).

    Stéphane Guégan in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, p. 201, colorpl. 9.1.

    Manuela B. Mena Marqués in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 20, 26, 150, 158–64, 183–84, 188, 190, 196, 203, 223, 252, 310, 353, 371, 374, 429, 432–34, 441–43, 448, 456, 463, no. 25, ill., and colorpl. 25.

    Gudrun Mühle-Maurer in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 353, 495–96.

    Deborah L. Roldán in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 388–89, 394–96.

    Gary Tinterow in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 48, 51, 55, 475, fig. 1.45 (color).

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 217–20, 237, 250, 485–86, 501, 504–5, no. 131, ill. [French ed., "Manet/Velázquez: La manière espagnole au XIXe siècle," Paris, 2002, pp. 377, 379, no. 72, colorpl. 40].

    Juliet Wilson-Bareau in Manet en el Prado. Exh. cat., Museo Nacional del Prado. Madrid, 2003, pp. 48–49, 55, 57, 384–85, 388.

    Petra ten-Doesschate Chu. Nineteenth-Century European Art. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2006, pp. 293–94, fig. 12-32.

    John Elderfield. Manet and the Execution of Maximilian. Exh. cat., Museum of Modern Art. New York, 2006, pp. 34, 120, fig. 63 (color).

    Kathryn Calley Galitz in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Chefs-d'œuvre de la peinture européenne. Exh. cat., Fondation Pierre Gianadda. Martigny, 2006, pp. 226–28, no. 43, ill. (color) [Catalan ed., Barcelona, 2006, pp. 124–25, no. 35, ill. (color) and on cover (color)].

    Ross King. The Judgment of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism. New York, 2006, pp. 18–21, 36, 49, 55, 127, 152, 267, 270, 325.

    Xavier Bray in Inspiring Impressionism: The Impressionists and the Art of the Past. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art, Atlanta. Denver, 2007, p. 112, fig. 42 (color).

    Kathryn Calley Galitz in Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 94, 266–67, no. 88, ill. (color and black and white).

    Richard Rand in Inspiring Impressionism: The Impressionists and the Art of the Past. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art, Atlanta. Denver, 2007, pp. 154, 155 n. 44, cites the influence of Fragonard's portrait of the guitarist La Bretèche.

    Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, fig. 16 (installation photo, color).

    Sylvain Amic in Gustave Courbet. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. New York, 2008, p. 99 [French ed., Paris, 2007].

    Christine I. Oaklander. "Jonathan Sturges, W. H. Osborn, and William Church Osborn: A Chapter in American Art Patronage." Metropolitan Museum Journal 43 (2008), pp. 188–89, 191, figs. 23 (color), 24 (installation photograph).

    Scott C. Allan in The Spectacular Art of Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904). Exh. cat., J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles. Paris, 2010, p. 270, under no. 155, fig. 128 (color), compares it to Gérôme's "Bashi-Bazouk Singing" (1868; Walters Art Museum, Baltimore).

    Claudia Einecke in Renoir in the 20th Century. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Ostfildern, 2010, p. 194, under no. 14 [French ed., "Renoir au XXe siècle," Paris, 2009], calls Renoir's "Spanish Guitar Player" a direct reworking (in reverse) of this picture.

    Laurence des Cars in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 46, 51.

    Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 284–85.

    Stéphane Guégan in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 28, 31, 33, 132, 160 n. 20, p. 269, colorpl. 1.

    Simon Kelly in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, pp. 60, 62, 68 nn. 38, 40, 48, p. 269.

    Nancy Locke in Manet, inventeur du Moderne. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 2011, p. 83 n. 38.

  • Notes

    Manet made an etching (the copper plate is in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris) after this painting; the Museum owns impressions of the second and fifth states. Ch. Decaux also made an etching after the painting.

    Manet made a watercolor study in 1864 at the request of Antonin Proust. It was in the collection of Dr. H. Eiszler, Vienna, in 1931 [see Ref. Tabarant 1931].

  • See also
    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History