This rifle was probably made in the Dagestani village of Kubachi, the principal armsmaking center in the Caucasus. The Arabic inscription on the barrel, "Owned by Abā Muslim Khān Shamkhāl," and the very high quality of the workmanship suggest that it belonged to a member of the family of the ruling prince (shāmkhāl).
Inscription: Damascened in Arabic on the breechblock: "Owned by Abā Muslim Khān Shamkhāl."
Ex. coll.: Prince Zoubaloff (1832–1913), Tiflis, Georgia; D. Z. Noorian, NY.
Grancsay, Stephen V. "Enriched Historical Arms." The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 7, no. 4 (December 1948). p. 30, fig. 12.
Lindsay, Merrill, Bruce Pendleton, Verne Noll, and Peter Parnall. One Hundred Great Guns: An Illustrated History of Firearms. New York: Walker and Company, 1967.
Rivkin, Kirill. Arms and Armor of Caucasus. United States, 2015. pp. 126–8, fig. 60.