Vases with janiform (back-to-back) heads were produced by Athenian potters near the end of the sixth century B.C. The heads usually provide a contrasting juxtaposition: for example, a satyr paired with a maenad or Herakles with Omphale. This Etruscan vase is unique because both heads are made from the same mold but are painted to appear different, one representing a satyr with pointed ears and a beard, the other a black man. The neck and handle of the vase are similar to a type of Italic lekythos (oil flask).
Beazley, John D. 1947. Etruscan Vase Painting. pp. 188, 305, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Snowden, Frank M., Jr. 1970. Blacks in Antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman Experience. pp. 160, 233, fig. 93, Cambridge: Belknap Press.
Kossatz-Deissmann, Anneliese, Brigitte Servais-Soyez, Fulvio Canciani, Giovannangelo Camporeale, Hans Peter Isler, Ingrid Krauskopf, Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, Marcel Le Glay, and Dr. Jean-Charles Balty. 1981. Aara-Aphlad, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae, Vol. 1. Aithiopes, no. 28, Zürich: Artemis Verlag Zurich und Munchen.
Picón, Carlos A. 2007. Art of the Classical World in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Greece, Cyprus, Etruria, Rome no. 360, pp. 305, 475, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
de Puma, Richard Daniel. 2013. Etruscan Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. no. 6.60, p. 219, New Haven and London: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.