This type of female protome with a narrow ovoid face and a thick veil falling behind the ears seems to have originated on the island of Rhodes during the sixth century B.C. Many examples have been found in sanctuaries and tombs there and in the Rhodian colonies on Sicily. This protome comes from a tomb at Sardis, the capital of the kingdom of Lydia, located inland from the west coast of Asia Minor. Traces of red, blue, and black pigment remain.
Butler, Howard Crosby. 1922. The Excavations, 1910-1914, Sardis, Vol. 1, Pt. 1. p. 118, fig. 124, Leiden: E.J. Brill.
Smith, H.R.W. 1949. "A Goddess from Lebadeia." Hesperia Supplement, VIII: p. 355 n. 8.
Richter, Gisela Marie Augusta. 1950. "Greeks in Persia." American Journal of Archaeology, 50(1): p. 26 n. 22.
Richter, Gisela M. A. 1953. Handbook of the Greek Collection. pp. 70 n. 38 , 212, pl. 52e, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Pinney, Gloria Ferrari and Brunilde Sismondo Ridgway. 1979. Aspects of Ancient Greece no. 114, pp. 234-35, Allentown, Penn.: Allentown Art Museum.
Greenewalt, Crawford H. Jr. 1987. "The Sardis Campaign of 1984." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. Supplementary Studies, 25: pp. 37, 49 n. 36.