Seurat's study of his friend the artist Aman-Jean (1860–1936) ranks as one of the great portrait drawings of the nineteenth century. Aman-Jean and Seurat were both students at the École Municipale du Dessin and the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris; they shared a studio in 1879. The drawing is not a preparatory study for a painting but a finished work. Shown in the Paris Salon of 1883, it was the first work to be exhibited by the twenty-three-year-old artist. Seurat's signature use of conté crayon on textured laid Michallet paper of high quality resulted in drawings with luminosity and tonal harmony, and the classic balanced pose of the artist in profile, focusing intently on his work, gives the image an enduring, timeless quality.
Signature: At upper right, in conté crayon, but visible only under ultraviolet light: "Seurat / 1883"
Edmond-François Aman-Jean (French, Chevry-Cossigny 1858–1936 Paris)1883 - June 1930; De Hauke & Co., New York, for Jacques Seligmann & Co.,June 1930 - February 1931 [stock no. 1539]; Stephen C. Clark (American), February 1931 - 1960; Donor: Stephen C. Clark (American)New York, February 1931-1960 1931-1960
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Portraits d'Hommes Exh. cat., Galeries Bernheim-Jeune, 16 December 1907 - 4 January 1908. Bernheim-Jeune et Cie, Paris, Paris, 1907, cat. no. 123, p. 21.
Exposition Georges Seurat (1859-1891) Exh. cat., Paris, Galeries Bernheim-Jeune, 14 December 1908 - 9 January 1909. Bernheim-Jeune et Cie, Paris, Paris, 1908, cat. no. 151.
Gustave Coquiot Georges Seurat. Albin Michel, Paris, 1924, pp. 26,135,139,2, ill.
Lefevre Gallery Pictures and Drawings by Georges Seurat Exh. cat., London, Lefèvre Galleries, April - May 1926. London, 1926, p. 1 (unnumbered.
Claude Roger-Marx "Georges Seurat." Gazette des Beaux-Arts. vol. XVI, no. 782, December. Paris, 1927, p. 317.
Robert Rey La renaissance du sentiment classique dans la peinture française à la fin du XIXe siècle : Degas - Renoir - Gauguin - Cézanne - Seurat. G. van Oest, Paris, 1931, pp. 115-116, 140.
Claude Roger-Marx Seurat. Georges Crès et Cie., Collection 'Les Artistes Nouveaux', Paris, 1931, p. 11.
Seurat and his Friends. Exh. cat., January 20-February. Wildenstein & Co., Ltd., London, London, 1937, p. 26.
James W. Lane "Thirty-Three Masterpieces in a Modern Collection: Mr Stephen C. Clark's Paintings by American and European Masters." Art News Annual. vol. 37, no. 22, New York, 1939, pp. 133-134, 144, ill.
Reginald Howard Wilenski Modern French Painters. Reynal & Hitchcock, New York, 1940, fig. no. pl. 17A, pp. 48, 68, 73, ill.
Robert J. Goldwater "Some Aspects of the Developement of Seurat's Style." Art Bulletin. College Art Association America, vol. 23, no. 2, New York, June 1941, p. 117, note 1.
Benedict Nicolson "Seurat's La Baignade." Burlington Magazine. vol. 79, no. 464, November. London, 1941, p. 145, note 23.
John Rewald, Lionel Abel Georges Seurat. Wittenborn and Co., La Jeune Parque, 1st; subsequent editions in 1946 and 1990. New York, 1943, fig. no. 11, xi, pp. 4, 11, 1, ill.
Modern drawings. Exh. cat.: 15 February - 16 April. edited by Monroe Wheeler, Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, 1944, pp. 28, 97, ill.
Jacques de Laprade Georges Seurat. Les Documents d'Art, Monaco, 1945, IV, pp. 67, 97, ill.
Paintings from the Stephen C. Clark Collection. Exh. cat., 6 June - 28 September. Century Association, New York, 1946.
Jerome Mellquist "Seurat, Man of Shadows." New York Times. June 8. New York, 1947, p. BR6.
Curt Valentin Gallery Seurat: His Drawings Exh. cat., New York, Buchholz Gallery, 4-29 March 1947, coinciding with the publication of Germain Seligman, 'The Drawings of Georges Seurat'. New York, 1947, cat. no. 21a (Addendum).
Germain Seligman The Drawings of Georges Seurat. Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, 1947, cat. no. 42, fig. no. pl. XXXI, pp. 16, 21, 23, , ill.
Hans Tietze European Master Drawings in the United States. J. J. Augustin, New York, 1947, cat. no. 148, pp. 296-297.
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John Rewald Georges Seurat. Albin Michel, 1st French edition; English editions published 1943 & 1946. 1948, fig. no. 16, pp. 28, 29, 52, ill.
Seurat, 1859-1891 : Paintings and Drawings. Exh. cat., 19 April - 7 May. Knoedler and Co., New York, 1949, cat. no. 34, ill.
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John Rewald Seurat (1859-1891). Braun & Cie, Collection de maîtres, Paris, 1949, fig. no. Pl. 49, ill.
John Rewald "Seurat: The Meaning of the Dots." Art News. Revised version reprinted in 'Studies in Post-Impressionism', New York, 1986, vol. XLVIII, no.2, New York, April 1949, p. 63, ill.
Reginald Howard Wilenski Seurat. Faber and Faber, London, 1949, pp. 2, 4.
Hermann Jedding Seurat. Milan, 1950-1957, p. 6.
Jacques de Laprade Seurat. Aimery Somogy, Paris, 1951, pp. 14, 16, 89, ill.
John Rewald, The Gallery Press A Loan Exhibition of Seurat and his Friends. Exh. cat., 18 November - 26 December. Wildenstein & Co., Inc., New York, 1953, cat. no. 25, pp. 6, 24, ill.
A Collector's Taste : Selections from the Collection of Mr and Mrs Stephen C. Clark. Exh. cat., January 12-30. Knoedler and Co., New York, 1954, cat. no. 19, ill.
Claude Roger-Marx Maîtres du XIX Siècle et du XXe. Pierre Cailleur, Collection Les Problèmes de l'Art, Geneva, 1954, p. 157.
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De David à Toulouse-Lautrec: Chefs-D'Oeuvre des Collections Américaines Exh. cat., 20 April - 5 June. Musée de l'Orangerie , Paris, Paris, 1955, cat. no. 89, fig. no. pl. 92, ill.
Théodore Rousseau Jr. ? "De David à Toulouse-Lautrec." Art et Style. vol. 34, unpublished; lent by Stephen C. Clark collection. 1955, ill.
John Rewald Post-Impressionism: from van Gogh to Gauguin. 1st ed. (later eds. 1962, 1978). New York, 1956, pp. 80-81, ill.
Robert L. Herbert Seurat: Paintings and Drawings Exh. cat., Art Institute of Chicago, 16 January - 7 March 1958, and New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 24 March - 11 May 1958. Edited by Daniel Catton Rich, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 1958, cat. no. 38, pp. 28, 42, ill.
William I. Homer "Seurat's Formative Period: 1880-1884." Connoisseur. vol. 142, no. 571, New York, August-September 1958, fig. no. 11, pp. 60-61, ill.
French Drawings from American Collections: Clouet to Matisse Ex. cat. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Dutch, French and English versions of catalogue. Rotterdam, Paris, New York, MMA February 3 - March 15, 1959, cat. no. 185, fig. no. pl. 170, p. 121, ill.
Henri Dorra, John Rewald Seurat: L'oeuvre peint; biographie et catalogue critique. Les Beaux-Arts, Paris, 1959, fig. no. 10, pp. XXXIX, XL, ill.
Paintings from Private Collections: Summer Loan Exhibition. Exh. cat.: MMA, 6 July - 4 September 1960. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1960, cat. no. 113, p. 10.
Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture Collected by Yale Alumni. Exh. cat., 19 May - 26 June. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, 1960, cat. no. 186.
Stephen C. Clark Art Collection and House. New York, 1961, cat. no. 48.
César de Hauke Seurat et son oeuvre. vol. 2, Paris, 1961, cat. no. 588, pp. 166-167,278,, ill.
Robert L. Herbert Seurat's Drawings. Shorewood Atelier, New York, 1962, p. 184 (catalogue entry), cat. no. 115, pp. 132, 135-36,, ill.
Jacob Bean 100 European Drawings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York Graphic Society, New York, 1964, cat. no. 78, ill.
Pierre Angrand Naissance des artistes indépendants, 1884. Nouvelles Editions Debresse, Paris, 1965, p. 109 (note 1), pp. 49, 113, 115.
Roger Eliot Fry, Sir Anthony Blunt Seurat: with an essay by Roger Fry and a foreword and notes by Sir Anthony Blunt. London, 1965, fig. no. 4, p. 19, ill.
John Russell Seurat. Oxford University Press, New York and Toronto, 1965, fig. no. 22, pp. 34, 35, 37, , ill.
Henri Perruchot La Vie de Seurat. Hachette et Cie., Paris, 1966, pp. 31, 32, 48, .
Pierre Courthion, Norbert Guterman Georges Seurat. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., The Library of Great Painters, New York, 1968, pp. 16, 46, ill.
Sir Kenneth Clark Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries. Exh. cat., November 14, 1970 - February 14, 1971. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, E. P. Dutton and Company, New York, 1970, cat. no. 389, p. 321, ill.
Jean Sutter, Robert L. Herbert, Isabelle Compin, Pierre Angrand, Lily Bazalgette, Alan Fern, Pierre Eberhart, Francine-Claire Legrand, Henri Thévenin, Marie-Jeanne Chartrain-Hebbelinck Les Néo-Impressionnistes. Bibliothèque des Arts, Paris, 1970, p. 14.
Louis Hautecoeur Georges Seurat. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milan, 1972, fig. no. 4, pp. 14, 18, ill.
Fiorella Minervino, André Chastel L'opera completa di Seurat. Rizzoli, See also French edition, 'Tout l'oeuvre peint de Seurat', Italian. Milan, 1972, cat. no. D154, pp. 112, 115, ill.
Fiorella Minervino, André Chastel Tout l'oeuvre peint de Seurat. Ernest Flammarion, See also Italian edition, 'L'opera complete di Seurat', French. Paris, 1972, cat. no. D154, pp. 112, 115, ill.
Iku Takenaka, Atsushi Miyakawa, Shuji Takashina Seurat et le Néo-Impressionnisme. Chuokoron-sha, Les Grands Maîtres de la Peinture Moderne - 9, Tokyo, 1972, fig. no. I, p. 113, ill.
Roseline Bacou "Dessins Français du Metropolitan Museum, New York; de David à Picasso." La Revue du Louvre et des Musées de France. Musée du Louvre, vol. 23, nos. 4-5, Paris, 1973, fig. no. 5, pp. 310, 311, ill.
Jacques Fryszman "French Drawings from the Metropolitan Museum at the Louvre." in Burlington Magazine. vol. 115, no. 849, London, December 1973, p. 837.
Mitsuhiko Kuroe Pissarro–Sisley–Seurat. Shueisha, Japan, 1973, fig. no. 4, p. 99, ill.
Jacob Bean, Linda Boyer Gillies, Cynthia Lambros, Roseline Bacou, Réunion des Musées Nationaux Dessins français du Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York de David à Picasso. 54th Exposition de Cabinet des Dessins Musée du Louvre, 25 October, 1973-7 January 1974. Paris, 1973, cat. no. 85, fig. no. 74, pp. 63, 144.
Sam Hunter, John Jacobus Modern Art, From Post-Impressionism to the Present: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., See subsequent editions published by Harry N. Abrams (1985, 1992, 2000), subsequent editions published by Prentice Hall (2000-2005), editions published by Fratelli Fabbri Edition (1967, 1975), and French edition published by Edita S.A., Lausanne (1977)., 1st. New York, 1976, p. 15.
Sam Hunter, John Jacobus, D. Ibazi, J.-Ph. Chenaux, Y. de Riaz L'Art Moderne du Post-Impressionnisme à nos jours. Edita S.A., French adaptation of editions published by Fratelli Fabbri, 1967&1975; see also editions published by Harry N. Abrams and Prentice Hall., Lausanne, 1977, p. 15.
Hilton Kramer "Seurat, A Master of Elusive Perceptions" New York Times. 30 September. New York, 1977, p. 62.
Jacob Bean Seurat, Drawings and Oil Sketches from New York Collections. Exh. cat.: September 29 - November 27, 1977. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1977, cat. no. 23.
Norma Broude Seurat in Perspective. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1978, p. 176.
Masataka Ogawa, Takeshi Kashiwa Seurat. Senshukai, "Les Peintres Impressionistes" Series 13, Tokyo, 1978, fig. no. III, ill.
Alexandrian, Alice Sachs Seurat. Crown Point Press, See also editions published by Flammarion, Paris, 1980 and 1990; Bonfini, Näfels, 1980; Easton Press, Norwalk, CT, 1983, 1993, Südwest Verlag, München, 1981., 1st U.S. edition of French original text (pub. Flammarion, 1980). 1980, p. 96 (list of illustrations), pp. 6, 10, 93, ill.
Erich Franz, Bernd Growe, John William Gabriel Georges Seurat, Zeichnungen / Georges Seurat, Drawings Catalogue published on the occasion of an exhibition at the Kunsthalle Bielefeld, Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden, and Kunsthaus Zürich, 1983-1984. Prestel Verlag (Munich), Little, Brown and Company (Boston), Editions in German and English. Munich and Boston, 1983-1984, pp. 63, 91, 198.
Belinda Thomson The Post-Impressionists. Phaidon Press, Oxford, 1983, fig. no. 9, pp. 14, 16, ill.
Charles F. Stuckey Seurat. The Artist's Limited Edition, A Madaenas Monograph on the Arts, New York, 1984, p. 6.
Richard Thomson Seurat. Phaidon Press, Oxford, 1985, fig. no. pl. 80, pp. 75, 76, 79, ill.
Paul Robert Le Petit Robert 2 : dictionnaire universel des noms propres, alphabétique et analogique. 1986, p. 1656.
Herbert Wotte Georges Seurat, Wesen, Werk, Wirkung. VEB Verlag der Kunst, Dresden, 1988, fig. no. 16, pp. 23, 130, 210, ill.
Michael Marlais "Seurat et ses amis de l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts." Gazette des Beaux-Arts. VIe Période, vol. 114, no. 1449, Paris, October 1989, fig. no. 1, pp. 153-154, ill.
Seurat und sein Kreis. Exh. cat., Salzburg, Galerie Salis, 'Festspielaustellung', 1989. Galerie Salis, Salzburg, 1989, ill.
La Promenade du critique influent Anthologie de la critique d'art en France, 1850-1990. Compiled and edited by Jean-Paul Bouillon, Compiled and edited by Nicole Dubreuil-Blondin, Compiled and edited by Antoinette Ehrard, Compiled and edited by Constance Naubert-Riser, Fernand Hazan, Paris, 1990, p. 350.
Alain Madeleine-Perdrillat, Jean-Marie Clarke Seurat. Editions Albert Skira (Geneva), Rizzoli (New York), French & English eds. published simultaneously by Skira &Rizzoli. Geneva and New York, 1990, pp. 13, 14, 47, ill.
John Rewald Seurat: A Biography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Thames and Hudson, Revised from 1943 text with additional material and bibliography. New York and London, 1990, pp. 20, 139, ill.
Nicolas Bourriaud "Seurat en Pointille." in Beaux-Arts Magazine. no. 89, Paris, April 1991, p. 61.
Françoise Cachin Seurat et le rêve de l'art-science. Librairie Gallimard, Réunion des Musées Nationaux , Peinture, Paris, 1991, p. 139 (table of illustrations), fig. no. 24b, pp. 24, 25, ill.
Anne Distel Seurat. Chêne, Switzerland?, 1991, p. 158 (chronology), fig. no. 1, pp. 8, 59, ill.
Michael Kimmelman "Seurat, The Enigma behind the Luster (Review of MMA exhibition 'Georges Seurat', 24 September 1991 - 12 January 1992)." New York Times. New York, 22 September, 1991, p. 35.
Robert L. Herbert, Françoise Cachin, Anne Distel, Susan Alyson Stein, Gary Tinterow Georges Seurat, 1859-1891. Exh. cat., Paris, Grand Palais, 9 April 1991 - 12 August 1991, and MMA, 24 September 1991 - 12 January 1992. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., The Metropolitan Museum of Art, English version; French version also published. New York, 1991-1992, Appendix B, p.377-378, cat. no. 30, pp. 49-50, ill.
John Russell "French Show Finally Gives Seurat His Due (Review of Grand Palais exhibition 'Georges Seurat', 9 April - 12 August 1991)." New York Times. New York, 1991, p. C12.
Éric Darragon Seurat, Correspondances, témoignages, notes inédites, critiques. Texts chosen by Hélène Seyrès, Acropole, Paris, 1991, pp. 85, 99, 143, 171-2, 320, p. 33.
Maurizia Tazartes Seurat. Giunti, Art Dossier, no. 60, Florence, 1991, p. 48 (chronology), pp. 9, 10, 15, ill.
Richard Tilston Seurat. Bison Group, London, 1991, p. 11.
Nicholas Wadley Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Drawing. Laurence King Publishers, London, 1991, fig. no. 101a, pp. 15, 284, ill.
Michael F. Zimmermann, Jérôme Ferry, Solange Schnall, Karin Fanny Williams Les Mondes de Seurat, son oeuvre et le débat artistique de son temps. Fonds Mercator (Anvers), Albin Michel (Paris), French edition (also see German ed.). Antwerp and Paris, 1991, fig. no. 84, pp. 62, 63, ill.
Joseph C. Skrapits "Shades of Gray, The Drawings of Georges Seurat" American Artist. vol. 56, no. 596, New York, March 1992, p. 47, ill.
Sarah Carr-Gomm Seurat. London, 1993, p. 12, ill.
The Post-Impressionists : A Retrospective. Edited by Martha Kapos, Les Beaux-Arts, London, 1993, p. 12.
Patrick-Gilles Persin Aman-Jean, Peintre de la Femme. Bibliothèque des Arts, Paris, 1993, fig. no. 5, pp. 8, 19, ill.
Stephen F. Eisenman, Thomas Crow, Brian Lukacher, Linda Nochlin, David L. Phillips, Frances K. Pohl Nineteenth Century Art : A Critical History. Thames and Hudson, 2nd edition published by Thames & Hudson, London, 2002, with identical text and illustrations., 1st. New York, 1994, fig. no. 15.1, pp. 318-19, 320, ill.
John Leighton, Richard Thomson Seurat and the Bathers. Accompanied exhibition 'Seurat and the Bathers' at the National Gallery, London, 2 July - 28 September 1997. National Gallery, London, Yale University Press, London, 1997, cat. no. 33, fig. no. 20, pp. 26, 27, 120, ill.
Craig Raine "Seurat's Courage." Modern Painters. vol. 10, no. 3, London, Autumn 1997, pp. 63, 64, ill.
Thomas Parsons, Iain Gale Post-Impressionism : The Rise of Modern Art 1880-1920. NDE Publishing, See French edition: 'Entre l'Impressionisme et l'art contemporain'., English; French edition also exists. Toronto, 1999, fig. no. 36, pp. 45, 46, ill.
Robert L. Herbert Seurat : Drawings and Paintings. Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2001, pp. 110, 111, 112, fig. no. 11, pp. 29-31, ill.
Aurea Carmina Georges Seurat & La Tradition des Traces Harmoniques. Marseilles, 2003, fig. no. 15, p. 63, ill.
Jo Kirby, Kate Stonor, Ashok Roy, Aviva Burnstock, Rachel Grout, Raymond White "Seurat's Painting Practice: Theory, Development and Technology." National Gallery Technical Bulletin. National Gallery, London, Yale University Press, vol. 24, London, 2003, p. 9.
Marina Ferretti-Bocquillon Seurat et le dessin neo-impressionniste. Musée d'Orsay, Five Continents Editions, Paris and Milan, 2005, pp. 7, 11.
Michael Conforti, James Ganz, Neil Harris, Sarah Lees, Gilbert T. Vincent The Clark Brothers Collect: Impressionist and Early Modern Painting. Exh. cat. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, Williamstown, MA, 2006, cat. no. 376, fig. no. 318, 153, 315, 344, ill.
Jodi Hauptman, Richard Thomson, Richard Shiff, Karl Buchberg, Hubert Damisch, Bridget Riley George Seurat: The Drawings. Exh. cat. Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, 2007, cat. no. 34, p. 250, ill.