Art/ Collection/ Art Object

南宋 李結 西塞漁社圖 卷
Fisherman's Lodge At Mount Xisai

Li Jie (Chinese, 1124– before 1197)
Song dynasty (960–1279)
ca. 1170
Handscroll; ink and color on silk
Image (a): 16 in. × 53 3/4 in. (40.6 × 136.5 cm) Overall with mounting (a): 16 3/8 in. × 26 ft. 1/8 in. (41.6 × 792.8 cm) Overall with mounting (b): 16 3/8 in. × 27 ft. 9 5/16 in. (41.6 × 846.6 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988
Accession Number:
1989.363.10a, b
Not on view
In this imaginary depiction of his retirement retreat the scholar-official Li Jie presents an image of his future home in a self-consciously primitive manner. The archaic, maplike image—composed of frontal, schematically rendered mountains and trees, an archaic "blue-and-green" color scheme, an uptilted ground plane, and sticklike architecture—directly recalls an early paradigm of the scholarly retreat: the Wangchuan Villa of the Tang poet-painter Wang Wei (699–759).

Li Jie retired to Mount Xisai in 1184 after an illustrious official career but executed this work about 1170 in anticipation of his retirement, which did not occur until 1184. It was in 1170 that Li also began to solicit colophons to his painting from some of the leading figures of his day, including the statesman and poet Fan Chengda (1126–1193). The resulting combination of painting and poems forms a unique record of Southern Song scholarly collaboration in the creation of a pictorial and literary work that celebrates the ideal of retirement—a phenomenon that anticipates by nearly a century similar artistic collaborations among scholars living under the Mongol Yuan dynasty.
#7685. Fisherman's Lodge At Mount Xisai
: / 
#7697. Fisherman's Lodge At Mount Xisai
: / 
For Audio Guide tours and information, visit
Inscription: No artist's inscription, signature, or seal

Label strip

Unidentified artist, 1 column in standard script, undated:


Mark on front section

1 column in standard script in gold ink stamped on paper, undated:

Hall of Radiant Benevolence



1. Fan Chengda 范成大 (1126–1193), 32 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1185; 5 seals:

When I was an official in Shexian [in Anhui] I had already considered retiring. At that time, Cishan [Li Jie] held a position in Xiuning [in Anhui] and I heard from him quite often. Ten years later, I retired from the position of Secretarial Court Gentleman, returned home, and built a house by the Stone Lake [near Suzhou]. Cishan, who was then prefect of Kunshan [in Suzhou Prefecture], envied me so much that he also began thinking of preparing a retreat for himself on the Tiao and Zha Rivers [in Huzhou, Zhejiang]. Twenty years later, [Li Jie] finally brought this Fisherman’s Lodge scroll to show me. I have suffered from illness and exhaustion for so long that only during the last four or five years have I been able to spend my time enjoying the lake. Though I had beautiful surroundings, I could not really have my reclusion as Tao Yuanming [Tao Qian, 365–427] did. Although Cishan got his "Fisherman’s Lodge" later than I, he is healthy and is able to accompany his parents and enjoy the beautiful scenery. With parents to be attended and with a lot of children around--this makes for the happiest life. I am ten thousand times more envious of him than he once was of me. I hope my illness can be cured quickly. When the peach trees are in bloom and the streams are full, I’d like to sail to Xisai in a skiff. After asking the host to purchase fish and wine, we’ll set sail, chanting to the tune of Songxi and inviting fishing boys and young wood-gatherers to sing along. Having enjoyed ourselves to the full, we’ll return to the Wusong River and Lake Tai in a fresh breeze. With emerald waters reaching to the sky and raindrops knocking on the thatched awning, it will be a perfect time for an inebriated nap. If I can fulfill this dream, it will be something extraordinary. So I write this at the end of this handscroll, anticipating the real journey.

Written by the Recluse of Stone Lake on the fifteenth of the first lunar month of the yisi year in the Chunxi reign era [February 16, 1185].[1] [Seals]: Shunyang Fan shi, Shihu Jushi, Shouli Tang shu, Wujun hou yin, ?ju?long?wei yang du zhihou Fan shi shi wei xing jia

始余筮仕歙掾,宦情便薄,日思故林。次山時主簿休寧,蓋屢聞此語。後十年,自尚書郎歸故郡,遂卜築石湖。次山適為崑山宰,極相健羨,且云亦將經營苕霅間。又二十年,始以漁社图来。噫,余雖蚤得石湖,而違己交病,奔走四方,心勦形瘵,其獲往來湖上道,不過四、五年。今退閑休老,可以放浪丘壑,從容風露矣。屬抱衰疾,還鄉歲餘,猶未能一跡三徑間,令長鬚檢校松菊而已。次山雖晚得漁社,而彊健奉親,時從板輿,徜徉勝地,稱壽獻觴,子孫满前。人生至樂,何以過此。余復不勝健羨,較次山疇昔羨余時,何止相千萬哉!尚冀拙恙良已,候桃花水生,扁舟西塞,煩主人買魚沽酒,倚棹謳之,調賦淞溪詞,使漁童樵青輩歌而和之。清飈一席,興盡而返。松陵具區,水碧浮天,蓬窗雨鳴,醉眠正佳。得了此緣,亦一段奇事,姑識卷末,以為兹遊張本。淳熙乙巳上元石湖居士書。 [印]:順陽范氏、石湖居士、壽櫟堂書、吳郡侯印、囗菊囗龍囗韋揚杜之後范氏世為興家

2. Hong Mai 洪邁 (1123–1202), 17 columns in standard script, dated November 13, 1188:


3. Zhou Bida 周必大 (1126–1204), 22 columns in standard script, dated April 9, 1190:


4. Wang Lin 王藺 (1128–1192), 39 columns in standard script, dated June 9, 1191:


5. Zhao Xiong 趙雄 (1129–1193), 33 columns in standard script, dated December 21, 1190:



6. Yan Cangshu 閻蒼舒 (jinshi degree, 1157), 16 columns in semi-cursive script, dated February 20, 1191; 3 seals:

始予在朝行,李公次山守毗陵,書疏往來,知其才氣不羣,風流可想,恨未識之。距今十有六年。次山自總領蜀計歸吳,予自荊州還蜀,始識面。相與傾倒,如平生歡,出此圖相示,索西塞漁社及西塞山七大字。舟中搖兀,勉彊書之。若夫次山所以追迹釣徒,景慕聱叟者,則前鉅公偉人瑰詞傑筆固已盡之,茲不復贅。顧關山脩岨,江湖渺茫,未知見日。時展斯巻,如接勝游於苕霅之上云。紹熙二年正月廿五日太原閻蒼舒書。 [印]:閻蒼舒印章、晉原開國、寳守堂記

7. You Mao 尤袤 (1124–1193), 16 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1191:

漁社主人以尚書郎萬里使蜀,洗手奉法,一毫不以自污。歸裝枵然,止朝天石一二塊,真不負朝家委任之意。出示 《漁社圖》 及趙、周、范三老跋語,欲余附名其間。夫自古湖山風月,漁人樵子,有而不能享。詩人詞士,愛而不能有。今公袖功名之手,歸休林壑,又得元真子之故居,其樂何可勝道。老子於此興復不淺,為我問訊。山前白鷺,未知元真子,何如今日爾。予生甲辰與公同歲,而衰病特甚,方丐祠未得,請見公還浙,復披此圖,茫然起冥鴻之慕。行當歸耕故園,望西塞山,一葦可航。拏舟訪公雲水間,扣舷歌“青篛綠簑”之句,道舊故而笑樂亦一快也,因書軸尾。東坡所謂異日不為山中生客云。紹熙辛亥暮春中澣錫山尤袤書。

8. Ye 埜 (unidentified, active 2nd half 13th c.), 18 columns in standard script, dated 1275:


9. Dong Qichang 董其昌 (1555–1636), 3 columns in semi-cursive script; 2 seals:

王晉卿山水,米海岳謂其設色似普陀巖,得大李將軍法。余有《夢遊瀛山圖》,與此卷相類。宋元名公題賞尤夥,可寶也。董其昌觀。 [印]: 宗伯學士、董氏玄宰

10. E Rong’an 鄂容安 (died 1755), 23 columns in standard script, dated June 4, 1746:










乾隆十一年丙寅孟夏既望西林鄂容安 [印]:鄂容安印、虛亭

11. Monk Zhanfu 湛福 (18th c.), 16 columns in standard script, dated March 21, 1752 [a transcription of comments by Shen Deqian 沈德潛 (1673–1769)]; 8 seals:

王晉卿係宋駙馬,生長豪貴,而能與蘇子瞻、黃魯直、米元章諸公遊,宜其畫筆之高擅聲于宣、政朝也。卷寫西塞山漁社,按西塞山凡兩處,一在金陵,劉夢得〈西塞山懷古〉所云“王濬樓舩下益州,金陵王氣黯然收”是也。一在吳興,張志和〈漁歌〉所云“西塞山邊白鷺飛,桃花流水鱖魚肥”是也。此卷山川平遠,漁家翁媼童稚與夫罾網汕罩鳴榔之類騈集,光景在苕溪、霅溪間,其為吳興西塞山無疑矣。畫後歸李氏次山,次山致政歸老,往還苕霅,與畫中風物相宜。題詠者為周益公、范石湖、尤延之諸公。諸公望尊學富,不妄許人,而傾倒次山如許,則次山之為人從可知矣。晉卿畫本流傳漸稀,有終身不得見者。前奉敕題《僲山樓閣》,今於寧王府中復題 《漁社》 一圖,徵名藉前人以存于晉卿,有夙世緣也。乾隆十七年歲次壬申二月朔後五日長洲沈德潛謹題。昆明湛福謹書。 [印]:湛福私印、介庵、十年書、會心處、聊以自娛、筆禪、一簾花雨飛香、硯田農

12. Ye Gongchuo 葉公綽 (1881–1968), 8 columns in semi-cursive script undated; 1 seal:




遐翁葉公綽 [印]: 公綽之印

13. Ye Gongchuo 葉公綽 (1881–1968), 4 columns in semi-cursive script, undated; 1 seal:

董思翁一跋乃圖為王作之證,舊裝于畫幅後,極有意義。有騎縫印可以為據。不知梁蕉林何改裝于諸跋之後,豈以時代之故耶。不知宋代諸跋未言及王畫,乃一漏洞。董題適在隔水,固不宜移之後幅,亦千慮之一失矣。綽再志。 [印]: 遐庵

Collectors' seals

Wang Shimin王時敏 (1592–1680)
Yanke 煙客

Liang Qingbiao 梁清標 (1620–1691)
Jiaolin shoucang 蕉林收藏
Guan qi dalue 觀其大略
Yexi yuyin 冶溪漁隱
Anding 安定
Cangyanzi 蒼岩子
Jiaolin jianding 蕉林鋻定
Qiubi 秋碧
Tangcun 棠村
Cangyanzi Liang Qingbiao Yuli shi yinzhang 蒼岩子梁清標玉立氏印章
Jiaolin miwan 蕉林祕玩
Hebei Tangcun 河北棠村
Jiaolin Yulu shi tushu 蕉林玉立氏圖書
Liang Qingbiao yin 梁清標印
Jiaolin Jushi 蕉林居士
Jiaolin Shuwu 蕉林書屋

Ye Gongchuo 葉恭绰 (1881–1968)
Ye Gongchuo yin 葉恭绰印
Ye Gongchuo 葉恭绰
Gongchuo zhi yin 恭绰之印
Gongchuo 恭綽
Zisun shibao 子孫世保

Zhang Shanzi 張善孖 (20th c.)
Shanzi xinshang 善孖心賞
Zhang jizi 張季子

Zhang Daqian 張大千 (1899–1983)
Zhibao shi bao 至寶是寳
Zhang Yuan siyin 張爰私印
Dafeng Tang zhencang yin 大風堂珍藏印
Daqian Jushu 大千居士
Shujun Zhang Yuan 蜀郡張爰
Zhang Yuan zhi yin 張爰之印
Zhang Yuan 張爰
Daqian 大千
Zhang Daqian ???張大千囗囗囗
Zhang Yuan changshou 張爰長壽
Diguo zhi fu 敵國之富
Daqian haomeng 大千好夢
Bie shi rongyi 別時容易
Nanbeidongxi zhiyou xiangsui wu bieli 南北東西只有相隨無別離
Zhang Daqian zhang 張大千章
Sanqian daqian 三千大千
Daqian zhi bao 大千之寳
Qiu tu bao gurou qing 球圖寳骨肉情
Zhang Daqian cang 張大千藏
Zhang shi baocang 張氏寶藏
Dafeng Tang 大風堂

Gu Luofu 顧洛阜 (John M. Crawford, Jr., 1913–1988)
Gu Luofu 顧洛阜
Hanguang Ge 漢光閣
Hanguang Ge Zhu Gu Luofu jiancang Zhongguo gudai shuhua zhi zhang 漢光閣主顧洛阜鋻藏中國古代書畫之章

Unidentified, 2
Shenyu Tang shuhua ji 慎餘堂書畫記
Bozhou He shi zhencang 亳州何氏珍藏

[1] Translation from Department records.
John M. Crawford Jr. , New York (until d. 1988; bequeathed to MMA)
New Haven. Yale University Art Gallery. "Traces of the Brush: Studies in Chinese Calligraphy," April 6, 1977–June 27, 1977.

University Art Museum, University of California at Berkeley. "Traces of the Brush: Studies in Chinese Calligraphy," September 20, 1977–November 27, 1977.

New York. China House Gallery. "Masterpieces of Song and Yuan Dynasty Calligraphy from the John M. Crawford Jr. Collection," October 21, 1981–January 31, 1982.

Lawrence. Spencer Museum of Art, University of Kansas. "Masterpieces of Song and Yuan Dynasty Calligraphy from the John M. Crawford Jr. Collection," March 14, 1982–May 2, 1982.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Cultivated Landscapes: Reflections of Nature in Chinese Painting with Selections from the Collection of Marie-Hélène and Guy Weill," September 10, 2002–February 9, 2003.

Osaka Municipal Museum of Art. "The Embodied Image: Chinese Calligraphy from the John B. Elliott Collection," April 8, 2003–June 1, 2005.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Art of the Brush: Chinese Painting and Calligraphy," March 12, 2005–August 14, 2005.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Brush and Ink: The Chinese Art of Writing," September 2, 2006–January 21, 2007.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Bridging East and West: The Chinese Diaspora and Lin Yutang," September 15, 2007–February 10, 2008.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Landscapes Clear and Radiant: The Art of Wang Hui (1632–1717)," September 9, 2008–January 4, 2009.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Chinese Gardens: Pavilions, Studios, Retreats," August 18, 2012–January 6, 2013.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Masterpieces of Chinese Painting from the Metropolitan Collection II," May 7, 2016–October 11, 2016.

Related Objects

Finches and bamboo

Artist: Emperor Huizong (Chinese, 1082–1135; r. 1100–25) Date: early 12th century Medium: Handscroll; ink and color on silk Accession: 1981.278 On view in:Not on view

Old Trees, Level Distance

Artist: Guo Xi (Chinese, ca. 1000–ca. 1090) Date: ca. 1080 Medium: Handscroll; ink and color on silk Accession: 1981.276 On view in:Not on view

Wang Xizhi watching geese

Artist: Qian Xuan (Chinese, ca. 1235–before 1307) Date: ca. 1295 Medium: Handscroll; ink, color, and gold on paper Accession: 1973.120.6 On view in:Not on view

Biographies of Lian Po and Lin Xiangru

Artist: Huang Tingjian (Chinese, 1045–1105) Date: ca. 1095 Medium: Handscroll; ink on paper Accession: 1989.363.4 On view in:Not on view

Summer Mountains

Artist: Attributed to Qu Ding (Chinese, active ca. 1023–ca. 1056) Date: ca. 1050 Medium: Handscroll; ink and color on silk Accession: 1973.120.1 On view in:Not on view