Art/ Collection/ Collection/ Art Object
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南宋 李結 西塞漁社圖 卷
Fisherman's Lodge At Mount Xisai

Artist:
Li Jie (Chinese, 1124– before 1197)
Period:
Song dynasty (960–1279)
Date:
ca. 1170
Culture:
China
Medium:
Handscroll; ink and color on silk
Dimensions:
Image (a): 16 in. × 53 3/4 in. (40.6 × 136.5 cm) Overall with mounting (a): 16 3/8 in. × 26 ft. 1/8 in. (41.6 × 792.8 cm) Overall with mounting (b): 16 3/8 in. × 27 ft. 9 5/16 in. (41.6 × 846.6 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Bequest of John M. Crawford Jr., 1988
Accession Number:
1989.363.10a, b
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 210
In this imaginary depiction of his retirement retreat the scholar-official Li Jie presents an image of his future home in a self-consciously primitive manner. The archaic, maplike image—composed of frontal, schematically rendered mountains and trees, an archaic "blue-and-green" color scheme, an uptilted ground plane, and sticklike architecture—directly recalls an early paradigm of the scholarly retreat: the Wangchuan Villa of the Tang poet-painter Wang Wei (699–759).

Li Jie retired to Mount Xisai in 1184 after an illustrious official career but executed this work about 1170 in anticipation of his retirement, which did not occur until 1184. It was in 1170 that Li also began to solicit colophons to his painting from some of the leading figures of his day, including the statesman and poet Fan Chengda (1126–1193). The resulting combination of painting and poems forms a unique record of Southern Song scholarly collaboration in the creation of a pictorial and literary work that celebrates the ideal of retirement—a phenomenon that anticipates by nearly a century similar artistic collaborations among scholars living under the Mongol Yuan dynasty.
Inscription: No artist's inscription, signature, or seal

Label strip

Unidentified artist, 1 column in standard script, undated:

宋人西塞漁社圖卷

Mark on front section

1 column in standard script in gold ink stamped on paper, undated:

Hall of Radiant Benevolence

明仁殿

Colophons

1. Fan Chengda 范成大 (1126–1193), 32 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1185; 5 seals:

When I was an official in Shexian [in Anhui] I had already considered retiring. At that time, Cishan [Li Jie] held a position in Xiuning [in Anhui] and I heard from him quite often. Ten years later, I retired from the position of Secretarial Court Gentleman, returned home, and built a house by the Stone Lake [near Suzhou]. Cishan, who was then prefect of Kunshan [in Suzhou Prefecture], envied me so much that he also began thinking of preparing a retreat for himself on the Tiao and Zha Rivers [in Huzhou, Zhejiang]. Twenty years later, [Li Jie] finally brought this Fisherman’s Lodge scroll to show me. I have suffered from illness and exhaustion for so long that only during the last four or five years have I been able to spend my time enjoying the lake. Though I had beautiful surroundings, I could not really have my reclusion as Tao Yuanming [Tao Qian, 365–427] did. Although Cishan got his "Fisherman’s Lodge" later than I, he is healthy and is able to accompany his parents and enjoy the beautiful scenery. With parents to be attended and with a lot of children around--this makes for the happiest life. I am ten thousand times more envious of him than he once was of me. I hope my illness can be cured quickly. When the peach trees are in bloom and the streams are full, I’d like to sail to Xisai in a skiff. After asking the host to purchase fish and wine, we’ll set sail, chanting to the tune of Songxi and inviting fishing boys and young wood-gatherers to sing along. Having enjoyed ourselves to the full, we’ll return to the Wusong River and Lake Tai in a fresh breeze. With emerald waters reaching to the sky and raindrops knocking on the thatched awning, it will be a perfect time for an inebriated nap. If I can fulfill this dream, it will be something extraordinary. So I write this at the end of this handscroll, anticipating the real journey.

Written by the Recluse of Stone Lake on the fifteenth of the first lunar month of the yisi year in the Chunxi reign era [February 16, 1185].[1] [Seals]: Shunyang Fan shi, Shihu Jushi, Shouli Tang shu, Wujun hou yin, ?ju?long?wei yang du zhihou Fan shi shi wei xing jia

始余筮仕歙掾,宦情便薄,日思故林。次山時主簿休寧,蓋屢聞此語。後十年,自尚書郎歸故郡,遂卜築石湖。次山適為崑山宰,極相健羨,且云亦將經營苕霅間。又二十年,始以漁社图来。噫,余雖蚤得石湖,而違己交病,奔走四方,心勦形瘵,其獲往來湖上道,不過四、五年。今退閑休老,可以放浪丘壑,從容風露矣。屬抱衰疾,還鄉歲餘,猶未能一跡三徑間,令長鬚檢校松菊而已。次山雖晚得漁社,而彊健奉親,時從板輿,徜徉勝地,稱壽獻觴,子孫满前。人生至樂,何以過此。余復不勝健羨,較次山疇昔羨余時,何止相千萬哉!尚冀拙恙良已,候桃花水生,扁舟西塞,煩主人買魚沽酒,倚棹謳之,調賦淞溪詞,使漁童樵青輩歌而和之。清飈一席,興盡而返。松陵具區,水碧浮天,蓬窗雨鳴,醉眠正佳。得了此緣,亦一段奇事,姑識卷末,以為兹遊張本。淳熙乙巳上元石湖居士書。 [印]:順陽范氏、石湖居士、壽櫟堂書、吳郡侯印、囗菊囗龍囗韋揚杜之後范氏世為興家

2. Hong Mai 洪邁 (1123–1202), 17 columns in standard script, dated November 13, 1188:

先公從朝廷還,得元真子所作《清江漁釣》一軸,宣和故物也。天筆題識其上,由存挂之素壁,正不識畫者,知其為超妙入神,視丹青蹊徑漠然相絕。雖釣竿蓬艇,葛巾野服,常羊於菰莆風露閒,使人之意也消。若著腳於絳闕清都之上,翫其位置,直與西塞,溪山寫真,缥缥陵雲,人間世無此境也。而河南李次山一旦實得之,不得從元真子游,得從次山游足矣。次山三為二千石,而苦貧如窶士,物莫能兩大,豈桃花流水,天固有以嗇其享邪。西塞在吳興,故元真有“霅溪灣裏釣魚翁”之句,而黃州亦有之,乃唐曹成王用師處。東坡公嘗以偶散花洲被諸樂府,姑借為齊安重至於雲天篛笠江海簑衣之章,則固表其下,曰吳興矣。淳熙戊申十月廿三日野處洪景盧書。

3. Zhou Bida 周必大 (1126–1204), 22 columns in standard script, dated April 9, 1190:

唐元結字次山,嘗家樊上,與眾漁者為鄰,帶苓箵而歌款,乃自號聱叟。今河陽李君,名元名也,字元字也,卜築霅溪,又號漁社,其善學柳下惠者耶。始乾道間,予官中都,君以先世之契,數携此圖求跋。自念身游東華塵土中,欲為西塞溪山下語難矣。屬者奉祠歸廬陵,所居在城東隅,去江無五十步。洲名白鷺,橫陳其前。日以扁舟寅緣葦間,漚來相從,百住而不止。雖未敢竊比張志和,亦庶幾乎元次山矣。而君方以尚書郎奉使全蜀,凡六十一郡之官吏,數十萬之將士,莫不歛板受約束,銜枚聽號令。猶念舊社不置,萬里遣書與圖偕來,督踐前约。予欲遽數忘機之樂,則君權任如此,顧豈招隱時邪。須君它日奉計甘泉,厭直承明,尚寄聲于我,當有以告君,今未可也,姑題巻軸歸之。紹熙元年三月三日適逢丁巳。青原野夫周必大

4. Wang Lin 王藺 (1128–1192), 39 columns in standard script, dated June 9, 1191:

余十數年前備官周行,聞毗陵守李次山政術敏健,而持身甚廉,以不得識面為恨。忽報臺評罷去,昉疑焉。有來自毗陵者必詢之,其說不異於前。最後一故人,家毗陵之外邑,誠篤可信,適調官來謁,坐定首扣所疑。故人曰:“某雖居是邦,與之情分絕疏。然公論不可掩。”且言其罷去之日,闔郡之人下至胥史走卒,皆稱嘆其廉,以為前未之見。余疑頓釋,屢為稱屈於儕輩間。後二、三年次山以親養之迫造朝,余時在從班,一見知其為磊落人,又過於所聞矣。剖符蔪春復來訪,別袖出此圖相示,欲丐數語。余披圖驚喜,謂次山曰:“頃年過霅上,霅之二三子邀余游道場諸山。望西塞,指似白鷺飛處曰‘此即元真子之故棲。’小舟夷猶,舉酒相屬,愛其清絕,而想見其人,安得有此山而居之,不知乃今為次山物也。它時得歸浮家迂路,繫西塞下,求見次山,當承雅命。今則未有暇。”次山即持圖去。自是出處參差,不相值者復七、八年。今春余罷政還淮鄉,而次山自四蜀總計,奉祠東下,舟過江上,不遠數十里肯來訪余。余方杜門掃軌,得次山來,相對話舊,衰病頓醒。次山復出圖與諸公題跋,求踐前约。余雖未得重為西塞游,然不可辭也。余中間立朝近十年,以憂去國,來歸故廬。上漏下濕,不庇風雨,竭使北之橐,僅成此屋。旁闢數畝園,粗有卉竹,杖屨觴詠,日與兄弟同之。偶與次山話其故,次山顧視棟宇朴陋,不覺發笑。余亦從旁自笑。次山猶未見荒蕪之園,當不一笑而足。然余知次山清貧,漁社新築,想必不能宏壯,因詢其規橅,則曰:“此行息肩,將伐松誅茅,隨宜創數十椽,管領溪山,以娛暮景。若必宏壯而後居,則貧不異昔,猝未可辨,是俟河之清也。”余因撫掌大笑曰:“然則漁社之圖特畫餅爾,又何暇笑余之朴陋哉。”次山亦復大笑曰:“此可書也。”乃並書以與之。紹煕二年五月既望軒山居士王藺

5. Zhao Xiong 趙雄 (1129–1193), 33 columns in standard script, dated December 21, 1190:

始予識次山於吳中,知其才術敏彊,所至辨治,號一時能吏。或曰“此特見於用者耳。”次山官業雖隆,宦情寔薄,其胸次恢廓,韻度清遠,有高人囗士之風,予姑唯唯否否。

紹興嗣之詔,以次山為尚書郎,出總蜀計。予適叨守潼川,潼川鹽策之囗囗計府至多,月課不登,郡邑俱病。次山則蠲其苛取,而舒其期會,潼川於是復為樂國,予益知次山之能。居無何,予以請祠得歸。方増治衡宇於內江之陰。囗領僮奴,囗松種菊。自所居達江上可里所,亦欲葺成小圃,為終焉之計。然規橅狹隘,景物寒儉,猶恐不及囗彭澤之三徑,況大焉者乎。俄而次山囗來言曰:“萬里孤官,豈人之情。有詞籲天蒙恩報可,今移節湖右,出峽有日,將歸老於西塞山下矣。舊則山趾卜築,名曰漁社。敢圖此,獻其丐我一言。”予披圖閱之。西塞霅溪蓋吳興勝絕處,漁社寔據其會,山水明秀,花木奇麗,延袤十數里,皆為几席間物,猗歟盛哉。退視予之所營,益蕪陋可笑。因嘆次山胸次韻度,誠如曩時或人之言云。然次山方以才術聞,今天子纘祚,首加識擢,豈終隱於漁社者耶。予雖未登漁社堂,然得閱其圖,圖末又有周益公、范吳公大書,記述頗詳。二公予平生所敬信,敢嗣書其後。紹熙庚戌日南至資中趙雄溫叔書。

6. Yan Cangshu 閻蒼舒 (jinshi degree, 1157), 16 columns in semi-cursive script, dated February 20, 1191; 3 seals:

始予在朝行,李公次山守毗陵,書疏往來,知其才氣不羣,風流可想,恨未識之。距今十有六年。次山自總領蜀計歸吳,予自荊州還蜀,始識面。相與傾倒,如平生歡,出此圖相示,索西塞漁社及西塞山七大字。舟中搖兀,勉彊書之。若夫次山所以追迹釣徒,景慕聱叟者,則前鉅公偉人瑰詞傑筆固已盡之,茲不復贅。顧關山脩岨,江湖渺茫,未知見日。時展斯巻,如接勝游於苕霅之上云。紹熙二年正月廿五日太原閻蒼舒書。 [印]:閻蒼舒印章、晉原開國、寳守堂記

7. You Mao 尤袤 (1124–1193), 16 columns in semi-cursive script, dated 1191:

漁社主人以尚書郎萬里使蜀,洗手奉法,一毫不以自污。歸裝枵然,止朝天石一二塊,真不負朝家委任之意。出示 《漁社圖》 及趙、周、范三老跋語,欲余附名其間。夫自古湖山風月,漁人樵子,有而不能享。詩人詞士,愛而不能有。今公袖功名之手,歸休林壑,又得元真子之故居,其樂何可勝道。老子於此興復不淺,為我問訊。山前白鷺,未知元真子,何如今日爾。予生甲辰與公同歲,而衰病特甚,方丐祠未得,請見公還浙,復披此圖,茫然起冥鴻之慕。行當歸耕故園,望西塞山,一葦可航。拏舟訪公雲水間,扣舷歌“青篛綠簑”之句,道舊故而笑樂亦一快也,因書軸尾。東坡所謂異日不為山中生客云。紹熙辛亥暮春中澣錫山尤袤書。

8. Ye 埜 (unidentified, active 2nd half 13th c.), 18 columns in standard script, dated 1275:

山人家住萬山裏,十八面峰鸞鳳峙。
自從束髮讀坡詞,人閒知有元真子。
西塞山邊白鷺飛,西塞山從何處起。
桃花流水鳜魚肥,桃花何處隨流水。
寤寐此景不可見,掩卷三嘆而已矣。
我今往來苕霅閒,維舟幾度上衡山。
客愛青山山愛客,白鷺飛去又飛還。
不知西塞在此境,望雲惆悵空盤桓。
自從今日見此圖,酒邊不覺為破顏。
恍如舟遇桃源僊,翻疑身在八節灘。
名公題跋語言妙,雲煙滿紙輝林巒。
漁社主人何處去?空留遺跡與人看。
漁社子,在何許?君昔慕張今慕汝。
猿驚鶴怨蕙帳空,滿地白雲誰是主?
山川如昼人物非,此度經過須記取。
只呼白鷺作主人,白鷺飛來無一語。
山青水綠思悠悠,船頭一霎斜風雨。
德祐乙亥良月莆陽筆峰翁埜敬書。

9. Dong Qichang 董其昌 (1555–1636), 3 columns in semi-cursive script; 2 seals:

王晉卿山水,米海岳謂其設色似普陀巖,得大李將軍法。余有《夢遊瀛山圖》,與此卷相類。宋元名公題賞尤夥,可寶也。董其昌觀。 [印]: 宗伯學士、董氏玄宰

10. E Rong’an 鄂容安 (died 1755), 23 columns in standard script, dated June 4, 1746:

西塞漁社歌題王晉卿畫
煙螺幾疊青模糊,江澄如鏡芙蓉鋪。
漁舟盪漾葦間出,叩舷彷彿歌烏烏。
編茆結網自成社,百壺夜向沙頭沽。
何人世外有此樂,綠簑青笠神仙徒。
晉卿王孫生富貴,紫裘騘馬天街趨。
平生雅擅山水癖,不知斯境身親無。
邈然含豪寄遐想,白雲浩蕩江鷗俱。
得毋均州既放後,濯纓欲賦滄浪乎。
流傳百禩宛無恙,妙蹟豈有神明扶。
主人愛此若拱璧,赫蹏牢裏將軍廚。
晴牎偶爾出卷示,花香嵐翠粘輕襦。
壺冰一片朗相映,何必漁釣耽清娛。

又得八截句。
手挽江流洗俗塵,釣竿相伴號元真。
泥塗軒冕渾忘卻,自是嚴陵後一人。

鱖魚跳浪鷺絲飛,閒擁煙簑卧釣磯。
如此溪山家合住,斜風細雨更何歸。

刺史開筵禮法疎,山人高唱傲菰蘆。
千秋絕調誰能繼?賸有風流入畫圖。

綺裘公子畫通靈,山水因緣契杳冥。
為問錦堂高宴處,雲鬟可得及樵青。

西塞山頭別有天,浩歌獨往志和船。
落華流水非人境,莫辨黃州與霅川。

石湖題後益公題,逸品人爭鑒賞之。
若使當時坡老見,定書水調墨淋漓。

宣和名畫知多少?揔把煙雲付劫灰。
瀟灑獨留此卷在,只應看作鏡花來。

丹青品鑒古難真,吮墨濡豪[毫]看幾廵。
妙處但參空色外,瓊英燕石不須論。

乾隆十一年丙寅孟夏既望西林鄂容安 [印]:鄂容安印、虛亭

11. Monk Zhanfu 湛福 (18th c.), 16 columns in standard script, dated March 21, 1752 [a transcription of comments by Shen Deqian 沈德潛 (1673–1769)]; 8 seals:

王晉卿係宋駙馬,生長豪貴,而能與蘇子瞻、黃魯直、米元章諸公遊,宜其畫筆之高擅聲于宣、政朝也。卷寫西塞山漁社,按西塞山凡兩處,一在金陵,劉夢得〈西塞山懷古〉所云“王濬樓舩下益州,金陵王氣黯然收”是也。一在吳興,張志和〈漁歌〉所云“西塞山邊白鷺飛,桃花流水鱖魚肥”是也。此卷山川平遠,漁家翁媼童稚與夫罾網汕罩鳴榔之類騈集,光景在苕溪、霅溪間,其為吳興西塞山無疑矣。畫後歸李氏次山,次山致政歸老,往還苕霅,與畫中風物相宜。題詠者為周益公、范石湖、尤延之諸公。諸公望尊學富,不妄許人,而傾倒次山如許,則次山之為人從可知矣。晉卿畫本流傳漸稀,有終身不得見者。前奉敕題《僲山樓閣》,今於寧王府中復題 《漁社》 一圖,徵名藉前人以存于晉卿,有夙世緣也。乾隆十七年歲次壬申二月朔後五日長洲沈德潛謹題。昆明湛福謹書。 [印]:湛福私印、介庵、十年書、會心處、聊以自娛、筆禪、一簾花雨飛香、硯田農

12. Ye Gongchuo 葉公綽 (1881–1968), 8 columns in semi-cursive script undated; 1 seal:

此圖重以諸名賢題識,益增聲價。余中年後卜居無地,屢欲于吳、越間為小築,均未遂。讀此增慨,因題二絕以諗大千:

青卞何緣賦隱居(余祖籍湖州),石林舊址感凋疏。
買山問舍都無計,白首沈吟展此圖。

藝事精深儼作家,能回光景到桑麻。
不須悵憶春鶯囀,一卷還珍蝶戀花(晉卿書〈蝶戀花詞〉曾在余所)。

遐翁葉公綽 [印]: 公綽之印

13. Ye Gongchuo 葉公綽 (1881–1968), 4 columns in semi-cursive script, undated; 1 seal:

董思翁一跋乃圖為王作之證,舊裝于畫幅後,極有意義。有騎縫印可以為據。不知梁蕉林何改裝于諸跋之後,豈以時代之故耶。不知宋代諸跋未言及王畫,乃一漏洞。董題適在隔水,固不宜移之後幅,亦千慮之一失矣。綽再志。 [印]: 遐庵

Collectors' seals

Wang Shimin王時敏 (1592–1680)
Yanke 煙客

Liang Qingbiao 梁清標 (1620–1691)
Jiaolin shoucang 蕉林收藏
Guan qi dalue 觀其大略
Yexi yuyin 冶溪漁隱
Anding 安定
Cangyanzi 蒼岩子
Jiaolin jianding 蕉林鋻定
Qiubi 秋碧
Tangcun 棠村
Cangyanzi Liang Qingbiao Yuli shi yinzhang 蒼岩子梁清標玉立氏印章
Jiaolin miwan 蕉林祕玩
Hebei Tangcun 河北棠村
Jiaolin Yulu shi tushu 蕉林玉立氏圖書
Liang Qingbiao yin 梁清標印
Jiaolin Jushi 蕉林居士
Jiaolin Shuwu 蕉林書屋

Ye Gongchuo 葉恭绰 (1881–1968)
Ye Gongchuo yin 葉恭绰印
Ye Gongchuo 葉恭绰
Gongchuo zhi yin 恭绰之印
Gongchuo 恭綽
Zisun shibao 子孫世保

Zhang Shanzi 張善孖 (20th c.)
Shanzi xinshang 善孖心賞
Zhang jizi 張季子

Zhang Daqian 張大千 (1899–1983)
Zhibao shi bao 至寶是寳
Zhang Yuan siyin 張爰私印
Dafeng Tang zhencang yin 大風堂珍藏印
Daqian Jushu 大千居士
Shujun Zhang Yuan 蜀郡張爰
Zhang Yuan zhi yin 張爰之印
Zhang Yuan 張爰
Daqian 大千
Zhang Daqian ???張大千囗囗囗
Zhang Yuan changshou 張爰長壽
Diguo zhi fu 敵國之富
Daqian haomeng 大千好夢
Bie shi rongyi 別時容易
Nanbeidongxi zhiyou xiangsui wu bieli 南北東西只有相隨無別離
Zhang Daqian zhang 張大千章
Sanqian daqian 三千大千
Daqian zhi bao 大千之寳
Qiu tu bao gurou qing 球圖寳骨肉情
Zhang Daqian cang 張大千藏
Zhang shi baocang 張氏寶藏
Dafeng Tang 大風堂

Gu Luofu 顧洛阜 (John M. Crawford, Jr., 1913–1988)
Gu Luofu 顧洛阜
Hanguang Ge 漢光閣
Hanguang Ge Zhu Gu Luofu jiancang Zhongguo gudai shuhua zhi zhang 漢光閣主顧洛阜鋻藏中國古代書畫之章

Unidentified, 2
Shenyu Tang shuhua ji 慎餘堂書畫記
Bozhou He shi zhencang 亳州何氏珍藏

[1] Translation from Department records.
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