Art/ Collection/ Art Object

清 傳高鳳翰 書畫合璧 冊
Landscapes and Calligraphy

Gao Fenghan (Chinese, 1683–1749)
Qing dynasty (1644–1911)
dated 1736
Album of six paintings; ink and color on paper
Each leaf: 12 1/2 x 9 3/4 in. (31.8 x 24.8 cm)
Credit Line:
Edward Elliott Family Collection, Purchase, The Dillon Fund Gift, 1981
Accession Number:
Not on view
Passing the local-level civil-service examination in 1727, Gao Fenghan served as a petty bureaucrat in Anhui Province for about a decade. Then, in 1737, Gao not only lost his government position but his right hand suddenly became paralyzed from acute rheumatism. Painfully training himself to write and paint with his left hand, he came to prize the crude awkwardness of his left-handed brushwork—a quality he had been unable to attain with his right hand. Supporting himself through his painting, he moved to a Buddhist monastery in Yangzhou, where he became close friends with the eclectic group of artists known as the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou. In 1741 he left Yangzhou and retired to his hometown in Shandong Province.

This small album, dated 1736, was done one year before Gao lost the use of his right hand. It shows the artist already working in a highly individualistic, naive style that reflects, in part, his lack of contact with ancient masterpieces. In contrast to Orthodox School painters, who drew inspiration from the works of Song and Yuan scholar-artists, Gao reveals in his inscriptions his artistic debt to near-contemporary professional painters such as Lan Ying (1585–after 1664), Gong Xian (1619?–1689), and Dai Benxiao (1621–1698).
Signature: (a) Signed Nanfu, a name used by artist in his later years. The top of the sheet and facing page carry poems by artist.
(b) Signed lower left: Shinong; top of the sheet and facing page carry poems by artist.
(c) Signed lower left: Nanfu; The top of the sheet and facing page carry poems by artist.
(d) Signed: Fenghan, following inscription; poem in clerical script on facing page; Gao credits Lan Ying for his inspiration.
(e) Signed lower right; inscribed above and on facing leaf; signature includes the cyclical characters "bingchen" which corresponds to 1736, perhaps the year of execution of this album; Gao would have been 43 years old.
(f) Dated with cyclical characters "bingchen [1736]"; top half of sheet and facing page are inscribed.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Text and Image: The Interaction of Painting, Poetry, and Calligraphy," January 23, 1999–August 16, 1999.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Embodied Image: Chinese Calligraphy from the John B. Elliott Collection," September 15, 2000–January 7, 2001.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "A Millennium of Chinese Painting: Masterpieces from the Permanent Collection," September 8, 2001–January 13, 2002.

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