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The Artistic Heritage of Modena: At the Origin of the Galleria Estense


The Annunciation

Budapest Master (Spanish, Castilian, ca. 1500)

Oil and gold on canvas, transferred from wood
32 x 20 1/4 in. (81.3 x 51.4 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of Muriel Stokes, 1958
Accession Number:
  • Catalogue Entry


  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Inscribed: (on banner) Ave gracia plena / dominus / tecum; (on halo) santa: mari[a]

  • Provenance

    Mrs. Lewis Cass (Isabel) Ledyard, New York (by 1950–d. 1955); her daughter, Muriel Stokes, New York (1955–d. 1958)

  • Exhibition History

    Huntington, N.Y. Heckscher Museum. "Treasure Hunting in a Painting," March 8–April 5, 1964, no catalogue?

    New York. IBM Gallery. "The Christmas Story in Art," December 13, 1965–January 8, 1966, no. 29 (as by an unknown Spanish artist, XV century).

  • References

    Chandler Rathfon Post. "The Early Renaissance in Andalusia." A History of Spanish Painting. 10, Cambridge, Mass., 1950, pp. 338, 342, fig. 134, attributes this picture to the Budapest Master and suggests it once formed part of a retable with a Nativity and an Epiphany (formerly collection comte de Demandolx-Dedons, Marseilles); comments on the similar hairstyles of the Virgin in the three pictures as well as in a triptych of the Annunciation, Assumption and Last Supper by the Budapest Master (present location unknown; exhibited at the Galerie Heinemann, Munich, in 1911), noting that the MMA Annunciation "practically repeats the version in the Heinemann triptych in composition, types, and details".

    Juan Antonio Gaya Nuño. La pintura española fuera de España. Madrid, 1958, p. 119, no. 424, attributes this picture to the Budapest Master and suggests it may have belonged to the same retable as five panels by this artist representing the Crucifixion, Betrayal, Deposition, and two episcopal saints (Budapest Museum of Fine Arts); further suggests that the Heinemann triptych was also part of this retable.

    Marianne Haraszti-Takács. "Oeuvres de maîtres espagnols du XVe siècle en Hongrie." Bulletin du musée hongrois des beaux-arts 38 (1972), pp. 44–45, rejects association of this picture with the five panels by the Budapest Master [see Ref. Gaya Nuño 1958], stating that the latter depict the life of Christ and would not belong to a retable of the Virgin; does not see a stylistic connection with the Budapest Master, calling our "extremely fine and poetic" picture more in the Flemish tradition.

    María Pilar Silva Maroto. Pintura hispanoflamenca Castellana: Burgos y Palencia, obras en tabla y sarga. 2, Valladolid, 1990, pp. 509, 622, no. 53, fig. 200, attributes this picture to the circle of the Castilian artist, the Master of los Balbases, and dates it about 1485–90.

  • See also
    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History