Inventory of the Collection of Roberto Canonici. 1632 [published in Giuseppe Campori, "Raccolta di cataloghi ed inventarii inediti," Modena, 1870, p. 117], lists this painting as a work by Mantegna.
Jean Paul Richter. Letter. January 7, 1881 [published in "Italienische Malerei der Renaissance im Briefwechsel von Giovanni Morelli und Jean Paul Richter," Baden-Baden, 1960, p. 142], calls it a very early work by Cima.
Paul Kristeller. Andrea Mantegna. London, 1901, p. 455, lists it among works attributed to Mantegna and calls the figure at the right Isaiah.
B[ryson]. B[urroughs]. "The Meditation on the Passion by Carpaccio." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 6 (October 1911), pp. 191–92, ill. on cover, attributes it to Carpaccio; suggests that the saint on the right might be Anthony, Paul the Hermit, or Onofrio.
Claude Phillips. "An Unrecognized Carpaccio." Burlington Magazine 19 (April–September 1911), pp. 144–52, ill., attributes it to Carpaccio and calls it "Meditation on the Passion"; questions the suggestion that the figure at the right is Isaiah; notes similarities to the Burial of Christ in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin; suggests the influence of Giovanni Bellini.
J[oseph]. A[rcher]. Crowe and G[iovanni]. B[attista]. Cavalcaselle. A History of Painting in North Italy: Venice, Padua, Vicenza, Verona, Ferrara, Milan, Friuli, Brescia, from the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century. 2nd ed. [1st ed. 1871]. London, 1912, vol. 1, p. 213 n., Borenius relates it to the Berlin Entombment of Christ and questions the identification of the saint on the right as Isaiah.
Adolfo Venturi. "La pittura del Quattrocento." Storia dell'arte italiana. 7, part 4, Milan, 1915, p. 758 n. 1.
Bernard Berenson. Venetian Painting in America: The Fifteenth Century. New York, 1916, pp. 157–59, fig. 63, notes the similarity of the figure of Christ to that in the Pietà in the Serristori collection in Florence, and suggests that the figure at the right may be Saint Onofrio.
Gino Fogolari. "La pittura veneziana in America." Rassegna d'arte antica e moderna 7 (May 1920), pp. 125–26, ill.
Frank Jewett Mather Jr. A History of Italian Painting. New York, 1923, pp. 368–70, fig. 248, tentatively attributes it to Carpaccio, suggesting that Giovanni Bellini may be responsible for the design and dating it about 1480; identifies the two saints as Job and Onofrio.
Wilhelm Hausenstein. Das Werk des Vittore Carpaccio. Stuttgart, 1925, pp. 138–39, pl. 65, tentatively dates it about 1505–10.
Giuseppe Fiocco. Carpaccio. Paris, 1931, pp. 74–75, pl. XCV.
Lionello Venturi. Pitture italiane in America. Milan, 1931, unpaginated, pl. CCCIII, dates it about 1510.
Bernhard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance. Oxford, 1932, p. 134.
Roberto Longhi. "Per un catalogo del Carpaccio." Vita artistica 3 (January–February 1932), pp. 8, 10 [reprinted in Opere complete di Roberto Longhi, vol. 4, "'Me pinxit' e quesiti caravaggeschi, 1928–1934," Florence, 1968, p. 78], dates it about 1500.
Lionello Venturi. "Fifteenth Century Renaissance." Italian Paintings in America. 2, New York, 1933, unpaginated, pl. 408.
Hans Tietze. Meisterwerke europäischer Malerei in Amerika. Vienna, 1935, p. 328, pl. 74 [English ed., "Masterpieces of European Painting in America," New York, 1939, p. 312, pl. 74], dates it about 1510.
Raimond van Marle. "The Renaissance Painters of Venice." The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting. 18, The Hague, 1936, pp. 259, 262–65, 338, 359, fig. 158, notes the influence of Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini, and mentions a drawing in the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin similar to the figure of Saint Jerome.
Frederick Hartt. "Carpaccio's Meditation on the Passion." Art Bulletin 22 (March 1940), pp. 25–35, fig. 1, identifies the figure on the right as Job, connects him with Saint Jerome's commentary, and fully discusses the iconography.
Harry B. Wehle. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Catalogue of Italian, Spanish, and Byzantine Paintings. New York, 1940, pp. 186–88, ill.
Hans Tietze and E. Tietze-Conrat. The Drawings of the Venetian Painters in the 15th and 16th Centuries. New York, 1944, pp. 83, 149, doubt Carpaccio's authorship, question the connection with the Berlin drawing which they attribute instead to Giovanni Bellini or his shop, and note the relation between the MMA painting and the verso of a drawing in the Fenwick collection, Cheltenham.
Murray Pease. "New Light on an Old Signature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 4 (Summer 1945), pp. 1–4, ill. (overall and details of signature), and ill. on cover (detail, color), discusses the removal of the false signature of Mantegna and the discovery of the genuine one of Carpaccio.
Herbert Friedmann. The Symbolic Goldfinch: Its History and Significance in European Devotional Art. Washington, 1946, pp. 83–84, 156, observes that many of the birds and animals may have no iconographical significance; notes that the goldfinch on the back of the throne typically appears with the Infant Christ.
A[rthur]. E[wart]. Popham. "Disegni veneziani acquistati recentemente dal British Museum." Arte veneta 1 (January–March 1947), p. 229, suggests that a drawing of a seated male nude in the British Museum might be a preparatory study for this painting.
A[rthur]. E[wart]. Popham and Philip Pouncey. Italian Drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings in the British Museum: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. London, 1950, p. 20.
Lillian Ross. "Profiles: How do you like it now, gentlemen?" New Yorker (May 13, 1950), p. 60 [reprinted as "Portrait of Hemingway," New York, 1961, p. 61], records Ernest Hemingway's comments on this painting during a visit to the Museum.
Edoardo Arslan. "I polittici della carità." Bollettino d'arte 36 (October–December 1951), p. 312, fig. 16 (detail).
Art Treasures of the Metropolitan: A Selection from the European and Asiatic Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1952, p. 225, no. 86, colorpl. 86.
Luigi Coletti. Pittura veneta del Quattrocento. Novara, 1953, p. LXX, pl. 154, compares it with the Berlin Entombment and calls it "stranamente signorelliana".
Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), p. 2, ill. p. 16.
Terisio Pignatti. Carpaccio. Milan, 1955, p. 72, figs. 57, 58 (overall and detail), dates it towards the end of the fifteenth century and notes echoes of Giovanni Bellini's various versions of the Pietà in Stockholm, Toledo, and the Uffizi, Florence.
Bernard Berenson. Italian Pictures of the Renaissance: Venetian School. London, 1957, vol. 1, p. 58, pl. 426.
Giuseppe Fiocco. Carpaccio. Novara, 1958, p. 33, pls. 49a (after restoration), 49b (before restoration), erroneously as in the National Gallery, New York; observes the influence of Mantegna in this work and in the Berlin Entombment and the Sacra Conversazione (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Caen), dating all three paintings to about the time of the cycle of San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Venice (1502–7).
Terisio Pignatti. Carpaccio: Biographical and Critical Study. [Lausanne], 1958, pp. 17, 52–54, ill. (color), observes the influence of Cossa and Roberti.
Guido Perocco. Tutta la pittura del Carpaccio. Milan, 1960, pp. 23–24, 64, pls. 122–23 (overall and detail), observes Flemish influence in the landscape, notes the Ferrarese connection, and suggests that Saint Jerome might be a portrait.
Fritz Heinemann. Giovanni Bellini e i Belliniani. Venice, , vol. 1, p. 232, no. V.100; vol. 2, fig. 845 (detail).
Jan Lauts. Carpaccio: Paintings and Drawings. London, 1962, pp. 13–14, 246, no. 63, ill. p. 12 (detail) and pls. 3–5 (overall and details), dates it about 1485 on the basis of the close relationship with Giovanni Bellini's paintings of the early 1480s, the Mantegnesque character of the landscape, and the form of the signature, which differs from signatures on works dated 1490 or later.
Pietro Zampetti. Vittore Carpaccio. Exh. cat., Palazzo Ducale. Venice, 1963, p. 233, ill. p. XLIV.
Giovanni Previtali. La fortuna dei primitivi dal Vasari ai neoclassici. Turin, 1964, p. 157 n. 4 (from p. 156), pl. XII(7) (detail), reproduces it with other works that once carried false Mantegna signatures.
Michelangelo Muraro. Carpaccio. Florence, 1966, pp. 24, 75, CLX–CLXV, ill. (overall and details), compares the figure of Christ with works by Bellini in Berlin, London, and Rimini, but dates the painting about the time of Carpaccio's "Saint Thomas Aquinas Enthroned" of 1507 (Staatsgalerie Stuttgart) and his "Death of the Virgin" of about 1508 (Pinacoteca Nazionale, Ferrara).
Pietro Zampetti. Vittore Carpaccio. Venice, 1966, pp. 40, 43, 64, no. 18, fig. 18, accepts Lauts's date [see Ref. 1962] of 1485 or slightly later.
Guido Perocco in L'opera completa del Carpaccio. Milan, 1967, pp. 105–6, no. 48, ill. (black and white, and colorpl. IL).
Giles Robertson. Giovanni Bellini. Oxford, 1968, p. 101, suggests that this painting, Giovanni Bellini's "Meditation on the Incarnation" (Uffizi, Florence, no. 631), and possibly also Bellini's San Giobbe altarpiece (Accademia, Venice, inv. no. 38) might have been executed for the same patron with a particular veneration for Job, who appears in all three pictures.
Calvin Tomkins. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, p. 169 [rev., enl. ed., 1989].
Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri. Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections. Cambridge, Mass., 1972, pp. 47, 264, 359, 407, 606.
Federico Zeri with the assistance of Elizabeth E. Gardner. Italian Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Venetian School. New York, 1973, pp. 14–16, pl. 14, note that the the inscription provides the interpretation of the scene, since through Saint Jerome's commentary on the book of Job, the sufferings of Job came to be seen as a prefiguration of the Passion of Christ [see Ref. Hartt 1940]; observe the influence of the late fifteenth-century Ferrarese school, especially Tura and Roberti, suggesting that Carpaccio painted this work at the same time as his "Death of the Virgin" of about 1508 in Ferrara and that they were both made in Ferrara.
Bernard Berenson. Looking at Pictures with Bernard Berenson. New York, 1974, pp. 238–39, ill.
Howard Hibbard. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1980, p. 246, fig. 434.
Rona Goffen. Giovanni Bellini. New Haven, 1989, pp. 117–18, fig. 81, compares it with Bellini's "Sacred Allegory" (Uffizi, Florence), suggesting that Bellini's painting should also be considered a meditation on the Passion [see also Ref. Robertson 1968].
Gioia Mori. "L''iter salvationis' cristiano nel 'Seppellimento di Cristo' di Vittore Carpaccio." Storia dell'arte no. 69 (May–August 1990), pp. 164, 195 n. 5.
Augusto Gentili. "Giovanni Bellini, la bottega, i quadri di devozione." Venezia Cinquecento 1, no. 2 (1991), pp. 53, 56, fig. 25, sees the deer as symbolizing the gentleness of Christ and Christians and the leopards as spotted with the vices of the sinner and the cunning and savagery of the infidel and the heretic.
Peter Humfrey. Carpaccio: Catalogo completo dei dipintii. Florence, 1991, pp. 98–100, no. 25, ill. (color), dates it 1505–7; calls the head of Saint Jerome a variant of that in the "Madonna and Child with Saints Jerome and Catherine" (formerly Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum, Berlin; destroyed 1945) and relates the figure of Christ to that in the "Dead Christ" (Magnani Rocca collection, Corte di Mamiano).
Frederick Hartt. "Imago biblica: Cinquant'anni tra Filippo Lippi e Carpaccio." L'arte e la bibbia: Immagine come esegesi biblica. Settimello (Florence), 1992, pp. 171–75, fig. 45, discusses the iconography; suggests that the painting may have been made as the altarpiece for a chapel on the left in the church of San Giobbe, Venice, perhaps the one that is today dedicated to Saint Diego (canonized in 1588).
Brigit Blass-Simmen. "'Povero Giopo': Carpaccios 'Grabbereitung Christi' und die 'Scuola di San Giobbe' in Venedig." Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen, n.s., 35 (1993), pp. 116–18, 120, 125, 128, figs. 4, 5 (reconstruction), argues that it originally formed part of an ensemble with the Berlin Entombment and suggests a connection with the decoration of the Scuola di San Giobbe in Venice in 1504.
Vittorio Sgarbi. Carpaccio. New York, , pp. 158–61, 222, no. 36, ill. (overall in black and white and color, detail in color), dates it about 1508–15; rejects Hartt's [see Ref. 1992] suggestion that it may originally have been located in the chapel of Saint Diego in the church of San Giobbe; believes that it and the Berlin Entombment were probably made for a private patron in the area of Venice, rather than in Ferrara [see Ref. Zeri and Gardner 1973].
Peter Humfrey in The Dictionary of Art. 5, New York, 1996, p. 821.
Claudia Cieri Via. "Disegno architettonico, decorazione e narrazione nella pittura urbinate del Quattrocento." Bartolomeo Corradini (Fra' Carnevale) nella cultura urbinate del XV secolo. Urbino, 2004, p. 133.
Augusto Gentili. "Bellini and Landscape." The Cambridge Companion to Giovanni Bellini. Cambridge, 2004, p. 309 n. 18.
Giovanni Agosti. "La storia dell'arte libera la testa." Su Mantegna. 1, 2nd ed. Milan, 2006, p. 82, pls. 2–3 (detail), reproduces pl. XII from Ref. Previtali 1964.
Brigit Blass-Simmen. "'Studi dal vivo e dal non più vivo': Carpaccio's Passion Paintings with Saint Job." Metropolitan Museum Journal 41 (2006), pp. 75–90, colorpl. 4, figs. 1, 2 (reconstruction), 6, 9, 20, 24, 35 (details), dates it about 1480–1505; discusses the use of model-drawings, as well as borrowings from other artists, for motifs in this painting; notes that the same cartoon was used for the body of Job in the MMA and Berlin paintings, that the jawbone recurs in the Berlin picture and in Carpaccio's "Saint George and the Dragon" (Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, Venice), and that the skull reappears in the Venice work.
Timothy Verdon in "Rinascimento." L'arte cristiana in italia. 2, Cinisello Balsamo (Milan), 2006, pp. 206–7, fig. 214 (color), dates it about 1490; notes that Christ seems more asleep than dead; sees the bird above Him as a symbol of the soul.
Guillaume Cassegrain in Titien, Tintoret, Véronèse . . . Rivalités à Venise. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 2009, p. 399.
Elfriede R. Knauer. "A Venetian Vignette One Hundred Years after Marco Polo." Metropolitan Museum Journal 44 (2009), pp. 53–55, 57 nn. 30, 34, fig. 11 (color).