Videos ()
The Artistic Heritage of Modena: Wounded Art


Sunset near Arbonne

Théodore Rousseau (French, Paris 1812–1867 Barbizon)

ca. 1860–65
Oil on wood
25 1/4 x 39 in. (64.1 x 99.1 cm)
Credit Line:
Bequest of Collis P. Huntington, 1900
Accession Number:
  • Gallery Label

    Approximately three miles separate the village of Barbizon, where Rousseau settled in 1836, and this site at the edge of the forest of Fontainebleau. Romantic artists had long been attracted by Arbonne’s rocky outcroppings, boulders, and strange, twisted trees. This painting, with its heightened color, strong contrasts of hue, and varied textures, is characteristic of forest sunsets painted during the final decade of Rousseau’s career. Throughout the composition the wood panel shows through the paint layer, its warm brown surface serving as a midtone.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Signed: (lower right) TH·R; (lower left) TH. Rousseau-

  • Provenance

    Alfred Sensier, Paris (until 1872; sold May 17 for Fr 4,000 to Durand-Ruel]; [Durand-Ruel, Paris, 1872–at least 1874; stock no. 1521]; ?Fremyn, Paris (until 1876; his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, May 10, 1876, no. 53, as "Paysage. Soleil couchant"); Robert Graves, Brooklyn (until d. 1886; his estate sale, American Art Association, New York, February 11, 1887, no. 166, as "Sunset at D'Arbonne," for $5,100 to Huntington); Collis P. Huntington, New York (1887–d. 1900; his bequest to MMA with life interest to his widow, Arabella D. Huntington, later [from 1913] Mrs. Henry E. Huntington, 1900–d. 1924; life interest to their son, Archer Milton Huntington, 1924–terminated in 1925)

  • Exhibition History

    New York. Union League Club. Winter 1887, no catalogue [see Montezuma 1888].

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Landscape Paintings," May 14–September 30, 1934, no. 39 (as "Sunset; D'Arbonne").

    Paris. Palais National des Arts. "Chefs d'œuvre de l'art français," July–September 1937, no. 407 (as "Paysage d'Arbonne. Soleil couchant").

    Newark Museum. "19th-Century French and American Paintings from the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art," April 9–May 15, 1946, no. 25 (as "Sunset: D'Arbonne").

    Winnipeg Art Gallery. "French Pre-Impressionist Painters of the Nineteenth Century," April 10–May 9, 1954, no. 58 (as "Sunset, d'Arbonne").

    San Francisco. California Palace of the Legion of Honor. "Barbizon Revisited," September 27–November 4, 1962, no. 100 (as "Sunset near Arbonne").

    Toledo Museum of Art. "Barbizon Revisited," November 20–December 27, 1962, no. 100 (as "Sunset near Arbonne").

    Cleveland Museum of Art. "Barbizon Revisited," January 15–February 24, 1963, no. 100 (as "Sunset near Arbonne").

    Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. "Barbizon Revisited," March 14–April 28, 1963, no. 100 (as "Sunset near Arbonne").

    New York. Wildenstein. "Romantics and Realists," April 7–May 7, 1966, no. 67.

    Paris. Musée du Louvre. "Théodore Rousseau, 1812–1867," November 29, 1967–February 12, 1968, no. 54.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, not in catalogue.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Barbizon: French Landscapes of the Nineteenth Century," February 4–May 10, 1992, no catalogue.

    Haus der Kunst München. "Corot, Courbet und die Maler von Barbizon: 'Les amis de la nature'," February 4–April 21, 1996, no. B 140 (as "Sonnenuntergang über der Heide von Arbonne").

    Musée des Beaux-Arts, Lyons. "L'école de Barbizon: Peindre en plein air avant l'impressionnisme," June 22–September 9, 2002, no. 101 (as "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne").

  • References

    Armand Silvestre. Galerie Durand-Ruel, recueil d'estampes, gravées à l'eau-forte. Paris, 1873, pl. CCX (engraving by Greux), as "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne".

    "The Graves Gallery: Some Notable Pictures Belonging to the Estate of a Brooklyn Collector." Brooklyn Eagle (February 2, 1887), p. 2, states that Graves paid $30,000 for this painting.

    Montezuma [Montague Marks]. "My Note Book." Art Amateur 16 (March 1887), p. 74.

    Walter Rowlands. "Art Sales in America." Art Journal, n.s., (1887), p. 294, notes that it brought [the American equivalent of] £1,020 at the Graves sale in 1887.

    Montezuma [Montague Marks]. "My Note Book." Art Amateur 19 (September 1888), p. 75, asserts that this picture was reworked by another hand after being sold by Durand-Ruel, who "saw it last winter at the Union League Club"; states that the correct title is "Soleil Couchant (lande d'Arbonne)".

    Bryson Burroughs. "The Collis P. Huntington Collection Comes to the Museum." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 20 (June 1925), p. 142.

    Charles Sterling in Chefs d'œuvre de l'art français. Exh. cat., Palais National des Arts. Paris, 1937, p. 197, no. 407.

    Robert L. Herbert. Barbizon Revisited. Exh. cat., California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco. Boston, 1962, pp. 48, 177, no. 100, ill. p. 59 (color), states that its present surface "dates from about 1865, but it was probably worked on over a period of many years".

    Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX Century." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2, New York, 1966, pp. 83–84, ill., date it about 1855; note that a recent cleaning has restored "its original appearance of a broad sketch".

    Hélène Toussaint in Théodore Rousseau, 1812–1867. Exh. cat., Musée du Louvre. Paris, 1967, pp. 80–81, no. 54, ill., calls it "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne" and states that it was probably finished about 1863; discusses the influence of Japanese art in this picture.

    Jean Bouret. L'École de Barbizon et le paysage français au XIXe siècle. Neuchâtel, Switzerland, 1972, p. 271, ill. p. 213, dates it about 1863.

    John Minor Wisdom Jr. in The Forest of Fontainbleau [sic], Refuge of Reality: French Landscape 1800 to 1870. Exh. cat., Shepherd Gallery. New York, 1972, unpaginated.

    Hélène Toussaint in Hommage à Corot: Peintures et dessins des collections françaises. Exh. cat., Orangerie des Tuileries. Paris, 1975, p. 88, under no. 78.

    Lydie Huyghe in René Huyghe. La Relève de l'imaginaire. La Peinture française au XIXe siècle: Réalisme, romantisme. Paris, 1976, p. 470.

    Antoine Terrasse. L'Univers de Théodore Rousseau. Paris, 1976, pp. 62, 64.

    Hans-Peter Bühler. Die Schule von Barbizon: Französische Landschaftmalerei im 19. Jahrhundert. Munich, 1979, fig. 104, dates it about 1855.

    Claudia Denk in Corot, Courbet und die Maler von Barbizon: "Les amis de la nature". Exh. cat., Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen and Haus der Kunst München. Munich, 1996, pp. 328–29, no. B 140, ill. (color), dates it about 1863.

    Michel Schulman with the collaboration of Marie Bataillès in and Virginie Sérafino in Théodore Rousseau, 1812–1867: Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre graphique. Paris, 1997, ill. p. 49 (color).

    Michel Schulman with Marie Bataillès. Théodore Rousseau, 1812–1867: Catalogue raisonné de l'œuvre peint. Paris, 1999, p. 323, no. 636, ill. (color), calls it "Soleil couchant sur la lande d'Arbonne" and dates it about 1863.

    Greg M. Thomas. Art and Ecology in Nineteenth-Century France: The Landscapes of Théodore Rousseau. Princeton, 2000, pp. 25, 71, 182, 257 n. 95, fig. 86, dates it about 1840s [erroneously cites Nicholas Green's dating of MMA 25.110.52 to 1844 as evidence for the date of this picture]; identifies the site as south of Barbizon, between Franchard and the village of Arbonne.

  • Notes

    Thomas [Ref. 2000] identifies this view as a plain south of Barbizon, between Franchard and the village of Arbonne. There is an engraving after the painting by Greux [see Ref. Silvestre 1873].

  • See also
    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History