General Grant's Council of War, Massaponax Church, Virginia

Timothy H. O'Sullivan American, born Ireland

Not on view

This small, candid photograph—likely a half-stereo view—offers an illuminating “snapshot” of a typical late war meeting of Union generals, a “Council of War,” in a field near Massaponax, Virginia. The chaotic study is one of the most daring made by any Union photographer. To compose it, Timothy H. O’Sullivan transported his equipment to an upper window in the gallery of a Baptist church that offered a useful elevated perspective from which to view the scene. Ulysses S. Grant’s soldiers have removed the church pews and placed them under the trees; staff officers gather around to discuss the situation. Evidence suggests that it had been a disastrous day for the Union troops, as the losses were heavy and no strategic advantage had been gained. In the background are rows of horse-drawn baggage wagons and ambulances transporting supplies for the next day’s engagement and the wounded to field hospitals. In the foreground General Grant bends over a pew and looks over his shoulder at a large map held in the lap of General George Meade, head of the Army of the Potomac.

General Grant's Council of War, Massaponax Church, Virginia, Timothy H. O'Sullivan (American, born Ireland, 1840–1882), Albumen silver print from glass negative

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