Art/ Collection/ Art Object

Countess Greffulhe

Otto Wegener (French (born Sweden), Helsingborg 1849–1922 Paris)
Gelatin silver print
Image: 26 15/16 × 15 3/8 in. (68.4 × 39 cm) Mount: 27 3/16 × 15 11/16 in. (69 × 39.8 cm)
Credit Line:
Gilman Collection, Gift of The Howard Gilman Foundation, 2005
Accession Number:
Not on view
Otto Wegener, known as Otto, went to live in Paris in his late twenties. He opened a photographic studio on the Place de la Madeleine in 1883 and became well known for his elegant portraits of women and children. Celebrated as the supreme beauty of her day, Countess Elisabeth Greffulhe (1860-1952) was the triumph of Parisian society when Marcel Proust made her acquaintance in 1892. Proust pursued her with requests for a photograph, which she staunchly refused. Nonetheless, the countess would inspire Proust's fiction, becoming a prototype for the glamorous Duchesse de Guermantes in "A la recherche du temps perdu" (1913-27). In this puzzling image, the countess is seen embracing her own double. As was Otto's custom, the image is heavily reworked in the negative, emphasizing the contrast between the two figures, the white expanse of lace bodice and billowing skirt shown against the dark taffeta of the dress. Heightening the effect of a ghostly apparition, the countess's eyes, to which Proust ascribed the whole mystery of her beauty, are, unexpectedly, closed or averted; indeed, the image is less a portrait than a dreamlike evocation of a woman's private self.
Portraits in which the sitters appear to be conversing with their doubles were not unusual in the 1890s. They were achieved by making several exposures on the same photographic plate. The idea for this composite portrait, which combines two negatives, probably originated with the countess, who had studied photography with Paul Nadar and who shared with many eminent figures of the day an abiding interest in spiritualism and the paranormal. The photograph brings to mind images of spectral phenomena obtained at séances.
A keen observer of the effect she produced on others, and not herself unmoved by her own beauty, Countess Greffulhe was not, however, oblivious to the ravages of time, and wrote of the day that the mirror would no longer be kind. Was this photograph intended to be the mirror that would not betray? Perhaps not coincidentally, the photograph hung in the countess's private apartments until her death. It has not been seen publicly until now.
Inscription: Signed and dated with gilt monogram on print, recto LCR: "Otto // 1899"
Estate of Countess Greffulhe; [Gérard Lévy]; Gilman Paper Company Collection, New York, October 29, 1987

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," May 25, 1993–July 4, 1993.

Edinburgh International Festival, Edinburgh, Scotland. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," August 7, 1993–October 2, 1993.

National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C. "The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection," June 19, 1994–September 11, 1994.

Hambourg, Maria Morris, Pierre Apraxine, Malcolm Daniel, Virginia Heckert, and Jeff L. Rosenheim. The Waking Dream: Photography's First Century, Selections from the Gilman Paper Company Collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993. no. 136.

Related Objects

A Russian Lady

Artist: Adolphe Dellamange (French) Date: 1870s Medium: Gelatin silver print Accession: 51.565.41 On view in:Gallery 850

[The Great Wave, Sète]

Artist: Gustave Le Gray (French, 1820–1884) Date: 1857 Medium: Albumen silver print from glass negative Accession: 1976.646 On view in:Not on view

Eugène Pelletan

Artist: Nadar (French, Paris 1820–1910 Paris) Date: 1855–59 Medium: Salted paper print from glass negative Accession: 1991.1198 On view in:Not on view

[Female Nude, Reclining, in Profile]

Artist: Julien Vallou de Villeneuve (French, 1795–1866) Date: ca. 1853 Medium: Salted paper print from paper negative Accession: 1993.69.3 On view in:Not on view

[Landscape with Cottage]

Artist: Marie-Charles-Isidore Choiselat (French, 1815–1858) Date: 1844 Medium: Daguerreotype Accession: 1994.417 On view in:Not on view