A master designer for embroideries in the Renaissance, Raffaellino del Garbo was a pupil of Filippino Lippi (ca. 1457-1504) and a gifted draftsman. Purchased by the Museum in New York in 1912 as a work by Filippino Lippi , this delicate pricked cartoon (full-scale drawing) was one of many made by Raffaellino as models for embroidered figures: the inner and outer contour lines of this study were in fact carefully pricked for transfer. Garzelli (1973) identified a badly damaged embroideredd fragment with the archangel of the Annunciation and a composition similar to that of the present drawing on a chasuble at the collegiate church of San Martino at Pietrasanta. Although the physical evidence confirms that this sheet was a highly functional working drawing, a number of small differences in design suggest that it was not directly used to produce the Pietrasanta embroidery. It seems possible that Raffaellino produced at least few variations on the Annunciate-angel type –given the popularity of the Annunciation in Renaissance textiles as well as his extensive use of spolvero-based techniques of design reproduction in his countless extant drawings.
The figural type and the delicacy of line and white gouache heightening are typical of Raffaellino's drawings and reflect the impact of his master Filippino Lippino, especially his tondos of 1483-84 in the Museo Civico of San Gimignano and his 'Adoration of the Chirst' of about 1495-97 in the Alte Pinakothek of Munich - paintings that probably date more than twenty years earlier than Raffaellino's small sheet.
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Title:The Angel of the Annunciation (Cartoon for an Embroidery)
Artist:Raffaellino del Garbo (also known as Raffaelle de' Capponi and Raffaelle de' Carli) (Italian, San Lorenzo a Vigliano, near Florence, ca. 1470–after 1527 Florence)
Medium:Pen and brown ink, brush and brown wash, highlighted with white gouache, over black chalk on paper washed brown; outlines of design and framing outlines pricked and with traces of rubbed black pouncing dust
Dimensions:Diameter: 3 13/16 in. (9.7 cm)
Credit Line:Rogers Fund, 1912
Inscription: Annotated on verso, in graphite: Raffaello Sanzio di Urbino 1520.
Sir Charles Lock Eastlake (British); by descent, Lady Elizabeth Rigby Eastlake; Eastlake sale, Christie's, London, June 2, 1894, part of lot 14; Jean Paul Richter (German)
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Italian Renaissance Drawings from New York Collections," November 9, 1965–January 9, 1966.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art. "Old Master Drawings from American Collections," April 29, 1976–June 13, 1976.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Drawings of Filippino Lippi and His Circle," October 28, 1997–January 11, 1998.
New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Fashion and Virtue: Textile Patterns and the Print Revolution, 1520–1620," October 20, 2015–January 10, 2016.
George Sidney Hellman "Drawings by Italian Artists in the Metropolitan Museum of Art." in Print-Collector's Quarterly. vol. 6, New York, April 6, 1916, pp. 157,159, ill.
Bernard Berenson The Drawings of the Florentine Painters. 3 vols., amplified edition. Chicago, 1938, p. 80, no. 766A.
Walter Mehring European Drawings from the Collections of The Metropolitan Museum of Art: A Portfolio of Collotype Reproductions [Vol. 1: Italian Drawings; Vol. 2: Flemish, Dutch, German, Spanish, French, and British drawings; Vol. 3: "New Series": Italian, Flemish, Dutch, German, Spanish, French, and British drawings]. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 3 vols., New York, 1942–44, (vol. 1) no. 12, ill.
Italian drawings and sculpture from the Renaissance to the present Exh. cat., State Island Institute of Arts and Sciences (November 23, 1958 - January 4, 1959). 1959.
Bernard Berenson, Luisa Vertova I disegni dei pittori fiorentini. 3 vols., Revised and enlarged. Milan, 1961, p. 143, no. 766E.
Jacob Bean 100 European Drawings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1964, no. 8, ill.
Jacob Bean, Felice Stampfle Drawings from New York Collections, Vol. I: The Italian Renaissance. Exh. cat. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1965, p. 31, no. 25, ill.
Annarosa Garzelli Il ricamo nella attività artistica di Pollaiolo, Botticelli, Bartolomeo di Giovanni. 1973, fig. no. 31, pp. 23-24, ill.
Ebria Feinblatt Old Master Drawings from American Collections. Exh. cat., Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Los Angeles, 1976, p. 21, no. 17, ill.
David Robertson Sir Charles Eastlake and the Victorian Art World. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1978, p. 277.
Jacob Bean, Lawrence Turčić 15th and 16th Century Italian Drawings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1982, cat. no. 94, fig. no. 94, p. 103, ill.
Francis Ames-Lewis, Joanne Wright Drawing in the Italian Renaissance Workshop. Exh. cat., University Art Gallery, Nottingham (12 February to 12 March 1983), Victoria and Albert Museum, London (30 March to May 15). London, 1983, p. 82, under no. 11, fig. 11a.
Carmen C. Bambach The Tradition of Pouncing Drawings in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Innovation and Derivation.[Ph.D. dissertation]. PhD diss., 1988 cat. no. 94, fig. no. 123, vol. 1, pt. 2.
George R. Goldner, Carmen C. Bambach, Alessandro Cecchi, William M. Griswold, J. Nelson, Innis H. Shoemaker, Elizabeth E. Barker The Drawings of Filippino Lippi and His Circle Exh. cat., October 28, 1997 - January 11, 1998. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1997, cat. no. 116, pp. 348-349, ill.
Carmen C. Bambach Drawing and Painting in the Italian Renaissance Workshop: Theory and Practice, 1300-1600. New York and Cambridge, 1999, pp. 317-19.
Carel van Tuyll van Serooskerken The Italian Drawings of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries in the Teyler Museum. Haarlem, 2000, pp. 71-72, under no. 22.
Chris Fischer Central Italian Drawings. Schools of Florence, Siena, the Marches and Umbria. Italian Drawings in the Department of Prints and Drawings. Statens Museum for Kunst. Copenhagen, 2001, pp. 46-47, note 5, under no. 5.
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