These vessels were made for Jews and Christians, possibly as tokens for pilgrims visiting the holy sites in Jerusalem or for use in burial rites. They appear to have been mass-produced in a single workshop, since the vessels for the two religions closely resemble each other in shape and style and differ only in the symbols decorating them. The Jewish vessels depict the menorah (candelabrum), shofar (ram’s horn), incense shovel, and lulav (palm branch). The Christian vessels are decorated with several types of crosses. The relief designs were produced by blowing molten glass into a mold.
Possibly from Syria.; [ P. Jackson Higgs, New York (sold 1931)]; Walter C. Baker (American), New York (1931–1971)
Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities: An Exhibition from the Collection of Walter Cummings Baker, Esq.. New York: The Century Association, New York, 1950. no. 118.
von Bothmer, Dietrich. Ancient Art from New York Private Collections: Catalogue of An Exhibition Held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 17, 1959-February 28, 1960.. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1961. no. 301, pl. 100.
Barag, Dan. "Glass Pilgrim Vases from Jerusalem, Part I." Journal of Glass Studies 12 (1970). p. 35.
Evans, Helen C., and Brandie Ratliff, ed. Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition, 7th–9th century. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2012. no. 72, p. 110.