From 500 to 1000 A.D., the Iberian Peninsula witnesses different waves of conquests by the Visigothic, Byzantine, and Arab armies. Christian rule under the Byzantines and Visigoths in the first half of the period comes to an end with the introduction of Islam in the eighth century by Arab armies. Under Islamic Umayyad rule, there is remarkable cross-cultural exchange between Christian, Jewish, and Muslim populations. Eastern Mediterranean cultural impulses complement local developments and help establish a rich and diverse artistic tradition. In the tenth century, the style set in Córdoba, one of the great cultural centers of Europe, is emulated throughout the region and beyond.