During this period in western North Africa (the Maghrib), the impact of the end of Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula is strongly felt. Andalusian immigrants contribute to the arts and culture of North Africa. The appeal of religious fraternities and leaders who would defend the frontiers of Islam bring new groups to power. In the sixteenth century, increasing corsair activity in the Mediterranean spurs further change in the region. Except for Morocco, which remains independent, Ottoman control is established in other areas. At the end of the period, arts and architecture begin to reflect the influence of the style set in Ottoman Istanbul.