Art/ Collection/ Art Object

Herman Doomer (born about 1595, died 1650)

Rembrandt (Rembrandt van Rijn) (Dutch, Leiden 1606–1669 Amsterdam)
Oil on wood
29 5/8 x 21 3/4 in. (75.2 x 55.2 cm)
Credit Line:
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929
Accession Number:
On view at The Met Fifth Avenue in Gallery 637
This well preserved portrait of exceptional quality depicts the Amsterdam ebony worker Herman Doomer, who made fine cabinets and chests. His widow's will of 1654 leaves this painting and a companion portrait of her to their son Lambert (Rembrandt's pupil, about 1640–44), provided that he paint copies for his brothers and sisters. Especially remarkable in this work are the textures suggested in the head and linen collar.
This portrait of the Amsterdam ebony worker Herman Doomer is reliably signed and dated 1640. Herman (or Harmen) Doomer was born in Anrath, Germany, near the Dutch border at Venlo. At about the age of eighteen he went to Amsterdam, where on November 11, 1618, he married Baertje (also Baertge, Baartjen, or Baertjen) Martens (ca. 1596–1678), in the Nieuwe Kerk. At the time, Herman was twenty-three and his bride twenty-two. She had come to Amsterdam from her native Naarden about ten years earlier, evidently to work as a maid in a house on the Herengracht. In the record of the couple's marriage, Doomer is described as an ebbenhoutwerker (ebony worker), a specialist in a craft that had only recently developed. The production of comparatively large objects veneered with the dense black hardwood, such as picture frames and cabinets, had been made possible by its importation (mostly from southern India) after the founding of the East India Company, or VOC, in 1602. In the early nineteenth century, Doomer was "styled Le Doreur de Rembrandt" (Rembrandt's Gilder; see Smith 1836), though there is no evidence that Doomer ever gilded anything, as did countless framemakers of the eighteenth and nineteeth centuries.

His son Lambert is best known for topographical drawings, including views of French cities and châteaux (1646) and records of a Rhineland journey (1663). It is thought that he trained as a draftsman in Rembrandt's studio about 1644; his early figural drawings and painted copies after Rembrandt's portraits of his parents tend to support the hypothesis. It seems likely that a professional and perhaps personal relationship between Herman Doomer and Rembrandt led to the twenty-year-old Lambert's association with the master, after he had apprenticed with his father as an ebony worker. That Herman Doomer made frames for Rembrandt is often stated but not known for a fact, though one would imagine that Rembrandt's portraits of Doomer and his wife were originally framed by the master craftsman. The frame on this portrait is of the period but not attributable to Doomer.

It has been suggested occasionally that the very high standard of execution may have been a personal tribute on Rembrandt's part. Whether or not the painter and the framemaker were friends, it must have occurred to Rembrandt that he was producing a portrait for one of the best craftsmen in Amsterdam, and that meticulous workmanship, on a wood panel, would be appropriate. The specific pose that Rembrandt assigned to Doomer placed him in a peerage of gentlemen artists, as Rembrandt defined himself in the Self-Portrait at the Age of Thirty-Four (National Gallery, London) of 1640, and his followers (such as Govert Flinck and Ferdinand Bol) also did when they adopted a similar pose in self portraits dating from the next few years.

The composition of the portrait comes close to Rembrandt's 1639 drawing (Albertina, Vienna) after Raphael's Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione (Musée du Louvre, Paris) of about 1514–15, using the conventions of Renaissance portraiture to convey Doomer's steadfastness, and Rembrandt's own respect for the sitter.

The picture is cited in a will made by the sitter's widow on July 13, 1654. In that testament and in revisions dated May 23, 1662, and September 3, 1668, Martens declares that "her son Lamber[t] Doomer shall receive and keep the portrait of her, the testatrix, and of her husband, made by Rembrandt van Rhijn, provided that he will provide each of his brothers and sisters with copies of the same at his expense" (Strauss and Meulen 1979). A pair of copies painted by Lambert Doomer (1624–1700) is in the Devonshire collection at Chatsworth, and an inventory of Lambert's estate, made shortly before his death, lists the Rembrandt portraits as bequeathed to Lambert's nephew, Hermanus Voster. These records and other evidence place this work and its pendant (now in the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg) in a select group of pictures by Rembrandt that are documented as autograph in his lifetime. In the Museum's collection, only the Aristotle with a Bust of Homer (61.198) is similarly authenticated by contemporaneous accounts.

There is a cabinet attributed to Herman Doomer in The Met's collection (2011.181).

[2012; adapted from Liedtke 2007]
Inscription: Signed and dated (lower right): Rembrandt / f 1640
the sitter's wife, Baartjen Martens, Amsterdam (1654–d. 1662); her son, Lambert Doomer, Amsterdam (1662–d. 1700); his nephew, Herman Voster the Younger, Amsterdam (from 1700); ?private collection, Geneva; Anthony Cousein, London (by 1730/35–1750; his estate sale, Langford, London, February 8, 1750, probably no. 53, as "A Man's Head," for £5513); H. Wolters, Amsterdam (until 1757; sale, May 4, 1757, no. 61); Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster, Grimsthorpe, Lincolnshire (by 1769–d. 1778); his widow, Mary, dowager duchess of Ancaster, Grimsthorpe (1778–91; her sale, Christie's, London, May 16–18, 1791, probably no. 84, as "A Portrait," for £497 to Tapant); Van Helsleuter, Amsterdam (until 1802; sale, Paris, January 26, 1802, no. 145, for Fr 5,005 to Urique); ?sale, Paris, 1836; bought by Chavagnac; Mme Gentil de Chavagnac, Paris and Geneva (before 1854; sold for Fr 16,500 to Morny); Charles-Auguste-Louis-Joseph de Morny, duc de Morny (by 1854–d. 1865; inv., 1865, no. 550; his estate sale, Palais de le Présidence du Corps Législatif, Paris, June 2, 1865, no. 68, for Fr 155,000 to ?Salamanca for the duchesse de Morny); his widow, Sophie Troubetzkoi, duchesse de Morny, later duquesa de Sexto, Madrid (1865–82); Mme de Cassin, Paris (1882–83); Auguste de Morny, 2nd duc de Morny, Paris (1883–84; sold for Fr 210,000 to Schaus); [William Schaus, New York, 1884–89; sold for $70,000–$100,000 to Havemeyer]; Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, New York (1889–his d. 1907); Mrs. H. O. (Louisine W.) Havemeyer, New York (1907–d. 1929)
Paris. Galerie Georges Petit. "Cent chefs-d'œuvre des collections parisiennes," June 12–?, 1883, no. 95 (as "Le Doreur," lent by the duc de Morny).

New York. American Fine Arts Society. "Loan Exhibition," February 13–March 26, 1893, no. 15 (as "The Gilder," lent by H. O. Havemeyer).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Hudson-Fulton Celebration," September–November 1909, no. 88 (as "The Gilder Herman Doomer," lent by Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, New York).

New York. M. Knoedler & Co. "Loan Exhibition of Masterpieces by Old and Modern Painters," April 6–24, 1915, no. 9 (lent anonymously).

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The H. O. Havemeyer Collection," March 10–November 2, 1930, no. 95 [2nd ed., 1958, no. 19].

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Art of Rembrandt," January 21–?, 1942, no catalogue.

New York. Wildenstein. "Loan Exhibition of Rembrandt," January 19–February 25, 1950, no. 13.

Art Gallery of Toronto. "Rembrandt," January 12–February 28, 1951, no catalogue?

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection," March 27–June 20, 1993, no. A449.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," October 10, 1995–January 7, 1996, no. 8.

Amsterdam. Museum Het Rembrandthuis. "Rembrandt: Zoektocht van een genie," April 1–July 2, 2006, unnumbered cat.

Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. "Rembrandt, ein Genie auf der Suche," August 4–November 5, 2006, unnumbered cat.

New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art," September 18, 2007–January 6, 2008, no catalogue.

John Smith. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters. Vol. 7, London, 1836, pp. 106, 121 nos. 288, 334–35, catalogues it three times; as no. 288, calls it "A Gentleman," notes the dimensions as 27 x 20 in., and states that it was sold for 5,007 francs, 200 livres, in the Van Eyl Sleuter sale of 1802; as no. 334, calls it "Portrait of a Man, Styled 'Le Doreur de Rembrandt'," dated 1646, 29 x 23 in., in a private collection in Paris, mentioning a mezzotint by J. G. Haid [probably after this work]; as no. 335, calls it "Rembrandt's Frame Maker," once in the Ancaster collection, where it was engraved by Dixon.

Catalogue raisonné des tableaux . . . composant la collection de feu Mme Gentil de Chavagnac. Le Brun, Paris. June 20, 1854, pp. X–XI, as sold by Mme Gentil de Chavagnac in her last years, and now in the collection of the duc de Morny.

Léon Lagrange. "La galerie de M. le duc de Morny." Gazette des beaux-arts 14 (April 1863), pp. 292–93, ill. opp. p. 292 (etching by L. Flameng), erroneously states that it remained in the sitter's family until bought by the purchaser who sold it to Morny; suggests that Rembrandt made it for his gilder in lieu of payment for services; correctly notes the date of 1640.

"Mouvement des arts et de la curiosité: Vente de la galerie Morny." Chronique des arts et de la curiosité, supplément à la Gazette des beaux-arts no. 109 (June 18, 1865), p. 217, states that it was bought at the Morny sale by the duchesse de Morny.

Inventaire après décès du duc de Morny. March 21, 1865, no. 550 [Etude de Mes. Asso, Bertin, Boudry, Paris; Getty no. F-13].

C. Vosmaer. Rembrandt, sa vie et ses ouevres. 2nd ed. The Hague, 1877, pp. 205, 523, suggests that it may be a portrait of the painter [Lambert] Doomer, noting that the title "Doreur" might be a corruption of the name Doomer; as engraved by N. Dupuis Jr. while it was in the Cousin collection.

Albert Wolff. Cent chefs-d'œuvre des collections parisiennes. Exh. cat., Galerie Georges Petit. Paris, [1883], p. 113, no. 95, ill. opp. p. 84 (etching by Mordantie).

Wilhelm [von] Bode. Studien zur Geschichte der holländischen Malerei. Braunschweig, 1883, pp. 464, 596, no. 291, as in the collection of Mme Cassin, Paris, stating that she bought it from the duchesse de Sesto in 1882; disagrees with Vosmaer's [see Ref. 1877] identification of the sitter as [Lambert] Doomer, as he would have been about twenty years old in 1640.

"Rembrandt's 'The Gilder'." New York Tribune ([ca. 1884/85]), p. ?, reports its purchase by an American collector.

Eugène Dutuit. Tableaux et dessins de Rembrandt. Paris, 1885, pp. 11, 20, 52, 62, no. 288, ill., as recently sold to an American; erroneously as in the Chavignac sale of 1854.

Mrs. Schuyler van Rensselaer. Rembrandt's "Gilder". New York, [ca. 1885], pp. 3–11 [reprinted from "The Independent" as a pamphlet with Ref. Cook n.d.].

Clarence Cook. Rembrandt's "Le Doreur". New York, [ca. 1885], pp. 12–16 [reprinted from "The Studio" as a pamphlet with Ref. Schuyler van Rensselaer n.d.], states that Mme de Morny, after her marriage to the duc de Sagan [Sesto], presented it to her son, the duc de Morny, from whom it was purchased by Schaus.

Alfred von Wurzbach. Rembrandt-galerie. Stuttgart, 1886, text vol., no. 295.

A[braham]. Bredius. "De 'Old Masters' in de Royal Academy te Londen, 1890." De Nederlandsche Spectator (1890), p. 108.

Émile Michel. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, and His Time. English ed. New York, 1894, vol. 1, p. 270; vol. 2, pp. 247–48, states that a document recently found by Bredius refers to the sitter as Paulus [sic] Doomer, father of Lambert Doomer and Rembrandt's frame-maker.

W. Bode. "Alte Kunstwerke in den Sammlungen der Vereinigten Staaten." Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, n.s., 6, no. 1 (1895), p. 71.

E. W. Moes. Iconographia Batava: Beredeneerde Lijst van Geschilderde en Gebeeldhouwde Portretten van Noord-Nederlanders in Vorige Eeuwen. Vol. 1, Amsterdam, 1897, p. 238, no. 2074-1, identifies the sitter as the painter Jan [sic] Doomer; mentions the copy in the Duke of Devonshire's collection.

A. "The Rembrandt Exhibition." Art-Journal, n.s., (December 1898), p. 356.

Malcolm Bell. Rembrandt van Rijn and His Work. London, 1899, pp. 71, 184, erroneously refers to the sitter both as Paul and Paulus Doomer.

H[ermann]. Knackfuss. Rembrandt. New York, 1899, pp. 82–83, fig. 101 (mezzotint by Dixon).

Wilhelm [von] Bode with the assistance of C. Hofstede de Groot. The Complete Work of Rembrandt. Vol. 4, Paris, 1900, pp. 30–31, 142, no. 275, pl. 275, identifies the sitter as Herman Doomer, and notes that his widow, Baartjen Martens, bequeathed this work to her son Lambert Doomer on the condition that he have it copied for each of his five siblings; lists copies in the Duke of Devonshire's collection, in the Brunswick museum, and in "the hands of a dealer a few years ago".

Carl Neumann. Rembrandt. 2nd ed. Berlin, 1905, vol. 1, pp. 250–51, identifies the portrait of Baartjen Martens in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, as its pendant.

Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. 2nd ed. Stuttgart, 1906, p. 398, ill. p. 181.

Adolf Rosenberg. Rembrandt, des Meisters Gemälde. Ed. W. R. Valentiner. 3rd ed. Stuttgart, 1909, p. 557, ill. p. 254.

Wilhelm R. Valentiner. The Hudson-Fulton Celebration: Catalogue of an Exhibition Held in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1909, vol. 1, p. 89, no. 88, ill. opp. p. 89.

Byron P. Stephenson. "Great Dutch Artists." Evening Post (September 20, 1909) [reprinted in Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 4 (October 1909), pp. 167, 170], erroneously states that the sitter was a painter named Dorner.

W[ilhelm]. Martin. "Rembrandts Portretten van Herman Doomer en Baartjen Martens." Bulletin van den Nederlandsche Oudheidkundigen Bond, 2nd ser., 2 (1909), pp. 126–29, fig. D, determines that all the copies after this composition are by Lambert Doomer himself, and therefore must all derive from the original [this work].

Joseph Breck. "L'art hollandais à l'exposition Hudson-Fulton à New York." L'art flamand & hollandais 13, no. 2 (1910), p. 54 [published in Dutch in Onze Kunst 17 (January 1910), p.10].

E[mil]. Waldmann. "Die Ausstellung Holländischer Gemälde des 17. Jahrhunderts in New York." Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, n.s., 21, no. 4 (1910), pp. 74–75.

Alfred von Wurzbach. Niederländisches Künstler-Lexikon. Vol. 2, Vienna, 1910, p. 405.

A[braham]. Bredius. "Rembrandtiana." Oud Holland 28 (1910), pp. 2–3, publishes Baartjen Martens's will; discusses Martin's [see Ref. 1909] article concerning the copies made after this picture by Lambert Doomer, believing the Duke of Devonshire's pictures to be independent works, not copies.

A[braham]. Bredius. Künstler-Inventare. Vol. 1, The Hague, 1915, pp. 76, 88, no. 38, publishes Lambert Doomer's estate inventory.

C[ornelis]. Hofstede de Groot. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century. Ed. Edward G. Hawke. Vol. 6, London, 1916, pp. 308–9, no. 642, mentions a copy in the Kulenkampff collection in Bremen.

D. S. Meldrum. Rembrandt's Paintings. London, 1923, pp. 85, 109, 190, pl. CXXVI.

William Howe Downes. "The Great Rembrandt Question." American Magazine of Art 14 (December 1923), p. 663.

"Havemeyer Collection at Metropolitan Museum: Havemeyers Paid Small Sums for Masterpieces." Art News 28 (March 15, 1930), p. 35, ill.

Harry B. Wehle. "The Exhibition of the H. O. Havemeyer Collection." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 25 (March 1930), p. 60, ill. p. 59.

Alan Burroughs. "The Links of Tradition: A Study of the H. O. Havemeyer Collection." Creative Art 7 (November 1930), p. 334, ill.

W. R. Valentiner. "Important Rembrandts in American Collections." Art News 28 (April 26, 1930), p. 4, ill. following p. 4.

Frank Jewett Mather Jr. "The Havemeyer Pictures." The Arts 16 (March 1930), pp. 455, 462, 464, ill. p. 470.

H. O. Havemeyer Collection: Catalogue of Paintings, Prints, Sculpture and Objects of Art. n.p., 1931, pp. 24–25, ill.

Wilhelm R. Valentiner. Rembrandt Paintings in America. New York, 1931, unpaginated, no. 71, pl. 71.

Alan Burroughs. "Some Shadowgraphs of Bol and Rembrandt." Creative Art 10 (June 1932), p. 453.

Alan Burroughs. "A Rembrandtesque Portrait by Govaert Flinck." Creative Art 10, no. 5 (May 1932), pp. 385, 391, figs. 2, 7 (overall and x-ray detail).

A[braham]. Bredius. Rembrandt Gemälde. Vienna, 1935, pp. 10, 15, no. 217, pl. 217.

O[tto]. Benesch in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler. Ed. Hans Vollmer. Vol. 29, Leipzig, 1935, p. 264.

William M. Ivins Jr. "The Art of Rembrandt." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 37 (January 1942), p. 3.

Introduction by William M. Ivins Jr. The Unseen Rembrandt. New York, 1942, pls. 5–6 (overall and detail).

Josephine L. Allen. "The Museum's Rembrandts." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 4 (November 1945), p. 73.

I[sabella]. H[enriette]. v[an]. E[eghen]. "Baertjen Martens en Herman Doomer." Amstelodamum 43 (October 1956), p. 133.

Louisine W. Havemeyer. Sixteen to Sixty: Memoirs of a Collector. New York, 1961, pp. 19, 24.

Kurt Bauch. Rembrandt Gemälde. Berlin, 1966, pp. 20, 23, pl. 385.

Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann in Encyclopedia of World Art. Vol. 11, New York, 1966, col. 924.

Christopher White. Rembrandt and His World. new ed. New York, 1966, pp. 41–42, ill.

Horst Gerson. Rembrandt Paintings. Ed. Gary Schwartz. Amsterdam, 1968, pp. 332, 497, no. 230, ill. p. 333.

Bob Haak. Rembrandt: His Life, His Work, His Time. New York, [1969], p. 166, fig. 259.

Paolo Lecaldano in L'opera pittorica completa di Rembrandt. Milan, 1969, pp. 108–9, no. 230, ill.

Horst Gerson, ed. Rembrandt: The Complete Edition of the Paintings. By A[braham]. Bredius. 3rd ed. London, 1969, pp. 565–66, 577, no. 217, ill. p. 176.

Calvin Tomkins. Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1970, pp. 172, 208–10 [rev., enl. ed., 1989].

Yu[ry]. Kuznetsov in Rembrandt Harmensz van Rijn: Paintings from Soviet Museums. Ed. V[ladimir]. Loewinson-Lessing. Leningrad [St. Petersburg], 1971, unpaginated, under no. 12, ill.

Franklin W. Robinson. Dutch Life in the Golden Century. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Fla. St. Petersburg, Fla., 1975, p. 39, under no. 26.

J. Bauch. Letter to John Brealey. November 30, 1977, observes that this panel derives from the same tree used for Rembrandt's "Saint John the Baptist Preaching" (Staatliche Museen, Berlin-Dahlem) and his "Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery" (National Gallery, London).

J. Bolten and H. Bolten-Rempt. The Hidden Rembrandt. Milan, 1977, p. 188, no. 292, ill.

Walter L. Strauss and Marjon van der Meulen. The Rembrandt Documents. New York, 1979, pp. 184, 318, 497, 579, ill. p. 319.

Anne Walter Lowenthal. Rembrandt. New York, 1981, pp. 9–10, colorpl. 6.

Werner Sumowski. Gemälde der Rembrandt-Schüler. Vol. 1, J. A. Backer–A. van Dijck. Landau/Pfalz, 1983–[94?], p. 469, under no. 231.

David Alexander in Rembrandt in Eighteeenth-Century England. Exh. cat., Yale Center for British Art, Yale University. [New Haven], 1983, pp. 48, 55, under nos. 90 and 115.

Rüdiger Klessmann. Die holländischen Gemälde. Braunschweig, 1983, p. 173, under no. 256.

Gary Schwartz. Rembrandt, His Life, His Paintings. New York, 1985, pp. 216–18, fig. 236 (color).

Frances Weitzenhoffer. The Havemeyers: Impressionism Comes to America. New York, 1986, pp. 53–54, 68, 209, 224, 254, ill. p. 224 (gallery installation) and pl. 12.

E. de Jongh. Portretten van echt en trouw: Huwelijk en gezin in de Nederlandse kunst van de zeventiende eeuw. Exh. cat., Frans Halsmuseum, Haarlem. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1986, pp. 24–25, fig. 15a.

Christian Tümpel. Rembrandt: Mythos und Methode. Königstein, 1986, pp. 216–17, 413, no. 207, ill. p. 212 (color).

J[osua]. Bruyn et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings. Vol. 2, 1631–1634. The Hague, 1986, p. 10.

Frederik J. Duparc. Landscape in Perspective: Drawings by Rembrandt and His Contemporaries. Exh. cat., Arthur M. Sackler Museum. Cambridge, Mass., 1988, p. 91.

J[osua]. Bruyn et al. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings. Vol. 3, 1635–1642. The Hague, 1989, pp. 36, 52, 382–89, 393, no. A140, ill. (overall, detail, color detail, and x-ray detail) and fig. 5 (detail).

Walter Liedtke. "Dutch Paintings in America: The Collectors and Their Ideals." Great Dutch Paintings from America. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis, The Hague. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 1990, pp. 40, 46.

Ivan Gaskell. The Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection: Seventeenth Century Dutch and Flemish Painting. London, 1990, p. 132, under no. 24.

H. Perry Chapman. Rembrandt's Self-portraits: A Study in Seventeenth-Century Identity. Princeton, 1990, p. 77, fig. 109.

David R. Smith. "Review of H. Perry Chapman, "Rembrandt's Self-Portraits"." Art Bulletin 72 (December 1990), p. 664.

Pierre Cabanne. Rembrandt. [Paris], 1991, p. 149, no. 15, ill.

Claus Grimm. Rembrandt selbst: Ein Neubewertung seiner Porträtkunst. Stuttgart, 1991, p. 108, colorpl. 61 (detail), fig. 194.

Ernst van de Wetering in Rembrandt: The Master & His Workshop. Ed. Sally Salvesen. Exh. cat., Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Vol. 1, "Paintings."New Haven, 1991, p. 90, fig. 109.

Josua Bruyn in Rembrandt: The Master & His Workshop. Ed. Sally Salvesen. Exh. cat., Gemäldegalerie, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin. Vol. 1, "Paintings."New Haven, 1991, pp. 77, 79, fig. 91 (color).

Leonard J. Slatkes. Rembrandt: Catalogo completo dei dipinti. Florence, 1992, pp. 227–28, no. 136, ill. (color).

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Rebecca A. Rabinow in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, pp. 91, 95, fig. 10 (gallery installation photograph).

Gretchen Wold in Splendid Legacy: The Havemeyer Collection. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1993, p. 373, no. A449, ill. p. 372.

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B[en]. P. J. Broos in The Dictionary of Art. Ed. Jane Turner. Vol. 26, New York, 1996, p. 163.

Reinier Baarsen. "Herman Doomer, Ebony Worker in Amsterdam." Burlington Magazine 138 (November 1996), p. 739, fig. 24.

JoLynn Edwards. Alexandre-Joseph Paillet: Expert et marchand de tableaux à la fin du XVIIIe siècle. Paris, 1996, pp. 70, 169, 308–9, ill. p. 73.

Gary Tinterow in La collection Havemeyer: Quand l'Amérique découvrait l'impressionnisme. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay. Paris, 1997, pp. 27, 107, fig. 8.

Paul Broekhoff and Michiel Franken. "Rembrandt/Not Rembrandt in The Metropolitan Museum of Art: Aspects of Connoisseurship." Simiolus 25, no. 1 (1997), p. 78.

Albert Blankert. Rembrandt: A Genius and His Impact. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Victoria. Melbourne, 1997, pp. 174, 177 n. 7, fig. 25a, under no. 25.

Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann in The Robert Lehman Collection. Vol. 2, Fifteenth- to Eighteenth-Century European Paintings. New York, 1998, p. 151 n. 10.

Simon Schama. Rembrandt's Eyes. New York, 1999, pp. 474–76, 521, ill. (color, overall and detail).

León Krempel. Studien zu den datierten Gemälden des Nicolaes Maes (1634–1693). Petersberg, Germany, 2000, p. 125 n. 67.

Rebecca A. Rabinow in Degas and America: The Early Collectors. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art. Atlanta, 2000, p. 37, fig. 3.

Quentin Buvelot and Hans Buijs. A Choice Collection: Seventeenth-Century Dutch Paintings from the Frits Lugt Collection. Exh. cat., Mauritshuis. The Hague, 2002, pp. 122, 210 n. 9, under nos. 19–20.

Anat Gilboa. Images of the Feminine in Rembrandt's Work. Delft, 2003, pp. 80–81, 197 n. 75.

Irina Sokolova et al. in Rembrandt et son école. Exh. cat., Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon. Paris, 2003, p. 41.

Esmée Quodbach. "'Rembrandt's "Gilder" is here': How America Got its First Rembrandt and France Lost Many of its Old Masters." Simiolus 31, no. 1/2 (2004), pp. 90–107, fig. 1.

Catherine B. Scallen. Rembrandt, Reputation, and the Practice of Connoisseurship. Amsterdam, 2004, pp. 187, 358 n. 14.

Peter Klein. "The Use of Wood in Rembrandt's Workshop: Wood Identification and Dendochronological Analyses." The Learned Eye: Regarding Art, Theory, and the Artist's Reputation: Essays for Ernst van de Wetering. Ed. Marieke van den Doel et al. Amsterdam, 2005, pp. 34–35.

Susan Donahue Kuretsky. Time and Transformation in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Art. Exh. cat., Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center. Poughkeepsie, 2005, p. 154.

Michiel C. Plomp. "Rembrandt and His Circle: Drawings and Prints." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 64 (Summer 2006), p. 23, fig. 30 (color).

Michiel Franken in Rembrandt: Quest of a Genius. Exh. cat., Museum Het Rembrandthuis, Amsterdam. Zwolle, The Netherlands, 2006, p. 167, fig. 183 (color) [Dutch ed., "Rembrandt: Zoektocht van een genie"].

Esmée Quodbach. "The Age of Rembrandt: Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 65 (Summer 2007), pp. 3, 15, 17, 27–28, 70, figs. 12 (color), 27 (Hudson-Fulton gallery photograph).

Walter Liedtke. Dutch Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, vol. 1, pp. ix, 10, 324, 356 n. 2, p. 474 n. 2; vol. 2, pp. 548, 604–12, 624, 626, 782, no. 148, colorpl. 148, fig. 147.

Peter C. Sutton. Vermeer and the Delft Style. Exh. cat., Tokyo Metropolitan Art Museum. [Tokyo], 2008, pp. 40, 114, erroneously states that the pendant portrait in the Hermitage is in the MMA.

Walter Liedtke. "Rembrandt Revelations at the Metropolitan Museum." Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen, Beiheft: Wissenschaft auf der Suche 51 (2009), p. 46.

Dennis P. Weller in Rembrandt in America: Collecting and Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., North Carolina Museum of Art. New York, 2011, pp. 23, 29 n. 18, fig. 4 (color).

George S. Keyes in Rembrandt in America: Collecting and Connoisseurship. Exh. cat., North Carolina Museum of Art. New York, 2011, pp. 66, 70, 128.

Daniëlle O. Kisluk-Grosheide in "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 2010–2012." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 70 (Fall 2012), p. 33.

Engraved by I. de Witt the Younger, N. Dupuis the Younger, Daniel Mordant, and I. G. Hertel. Engraved in mezzotint by J. G. Haid and John Dixon. Etched by Léopold Flameng and C. A. Waltner.

A chalk drawing after this picture, in reverse, probably dating from the eighteenth century, was in the collection of Charles Duits, London, in 1950.

An anonymous French newspaper article (see clipping in archive file) discusses the duc de Morny's purchase of this picture from the collection of Mme de Chevigny [sic] in Geneva. According to the news item, a buyer could not be found in Paris for some time because the expert Nieuwenhuysen [probably Chrétien Nieuwenhuys] called it a fake. Morny eventually bought it, allegedly for Fr 25,000, but actually for only Fr 16,500, despite his initial distaste for the working-class subject.
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