The verses inscribed around this lamp stand embody spiritual metaphors comparing the beloved to a candle and the lover to a moth attracted to its light. The verse by an unidentified poet encircling the middle portion of the stand reads: I said to the candle: "What is this moth around your face?" It said: "I am the sultan of beauty—what is the desire of the moth?"
With a wide base and a slightly flared lip, the distinctive tall, cylindrical shape seen in these two examples (nos. 89.2.197 and 29.53) is characteristic of a group of Safavid lamp stands sharing a similar silhouette. After its emergence in the early sixteenth century, it became a recurring metalwork form, as evinced by numerous extant examples from the Safavid period. The rhythmic, repeating ornamentation adorning the surfaces of the present pieces includes interlaced vegetal scrollwork, geometric patterning, and calligraphic inscriptions—all closely related to contemporary manuscript illumination and tilework. The calligraphic passages, executed in a nasta‘liq script, are taken from the works of classical and contemporary Persian poets, including Sa‘di, Amir Khusrau Dihlavi, and Muhtasham Kashani. Metaphors of lamps, candles, and light abound in these verses, which echo the nature of the objects they adorn. Favored lines appear again and again, sometimes repeated more than once on the same piece. While many of these verses extol physical attributes, Persian poetry typically embodies multivalent meanings. For example, the comparison of the beloved to a candle, and the lover to a moth enraptured by its light, may be understood as a spiritual metaphor in which the moth represents the human soul, longing to be reunited with its ultimate Beloved—God. Whether enjoyed simply as playful puns referring to the objects at hand, as lyric poems extolling the beauty of an earthly beloved, or as expressions of spiritual yearning, the verses on these lamp stands provide a glimpse into the sophisticated interactions between Persian poetry and the visual arts. Such lamp stands were undoubtedly used within secular settings, but at least two examples displaying similar poetic content have inscriptions linking them to Shi‘i shrines. While such evidence is limited, other similarly shaped lamp stands may also have been destined for religious foundations and shrine complexes. Historical sources tell us that lighting fixtures were considered appropriate gifts to religious institutions, and many types of lamps may have been crafted for this purpose. Some remain within the holdings of such institutions. Denise-Marie Teece in [Ekhtiar, Soucek, Canby, and Haidar 2011] Footnotes: 8. In the secondary literature, a number of different Persian terms have been used to refer to these lamp stands, including sham‘dan and mash‘al. For no. 89.2.197, see Schimmel 1992, pp. 41, 43; Berlin 1981, pp. 216–17; and Akbarnia and Leoni 2010, pp. 18–19, no. 4. 9. For a discussion of this form, see Melikian-Chirvani 1982, pp. 263ff., and p. 276 n. 20. See also Zebrowski 1997, p. 115, figs. 130–31. The Metropolitan Museum collection contains five lamp stands of this shape, including the two published here as well as acc. nos. 91.1.554a, 91.1.573, and 91.1.579. All are attributed to either the sixteenth or seventeenth century. Further examples are published in Melikian-Chirvani 1982 and Chefs-d’oeuvre islamiques de l’Aga Khan Museum. Exhibition, Musée du Louvre, Paris. Catalogue by Sophie Makariou and others. Paris and Milan, 2007.. 10. Examples with poetic as well as dedicatory inscriptions connecting them with religious foundations are published in Melikian-Chirvani 2007, nos. 135, 136; see also Canby 2009, p. 86, no. 48. 11. See Melikian-Chirvani, A[ssadullah] S[ouren]. "The Lights of Sufi Shrines." Islamic Art 2 (1987), pp. 117–47, pls. 6–8, esp. pp. 118ff., for a discussion of historical sources and descriptions of lamp stands with dedications to religious foundations. 12. For example, see the lamp stand described in Melikian-Chirvani 1982, pp. 236ff., and p. 276 n. 20; an oil lamp published in Zebrowski 1997, p. 110, fig. 120; and a hanging lamp published in Canby 2009, no. 88.
Inscription: Persian inscriptions in nasta‘liq script In cartouches around top (verses from Ahli Turshizi): چراغ اهل دل را روشن از روی تو می بینم همه صاحبدلان را روی دل سوی تو می بینم توئی سلطان عالم کم مبادا از سرت موئی ک ه عالم طفیل یک سر موی تو می بینم I see the lamp of the true believers is illuminated by your presence; All the true believers, I see them turn their hearts toward you; You, O Sultan of the World, may not even a single hair fall from your head; [For] I see that the world [is but] a speck, upon one strand of your hair.
In cartouches around middle (a rhyming couplet from an unidentified Persian poet): شمعی را بگفتم به گرد رخت پروانه چیست گفت من سلطان حسنم مراد پروانه چیست I said to the candle: what is this moth around your face? It said: I am the sultan of beauty — what is the desire of the moth?
Followed by a line, written in prose: سعادت باد و دولت باد و فرصت باد الهی عاقبت محمود گردان May there be happiness and [good] fortune and opportunity. O God, make the end praiseworthy.
In cartouches around bottom (two rhyming couplets by Muhtasham Kashani): رخش شمعیست دود آن کمند عنبر آلودش عجب شمعی که ز بالا بپائین میرود دودش چو گنجش یکست مرغ دل بدست طفل خونخواری که پیش من عزیزش دارد اما می کشد زودش His face is a candle, its smoke that ambergris-soaked lasso [of curls]. What a candle! [That] its smoke flows from above to below . . . The heart is like a sparrow in the hand of a cruel-hearted child Who appears to me [at first] to treasure it, but [then] soon kills it.
On base, in cartouche: حسن علي بن علي معصوم Hasan ‘Ali, son of ‘Ali-i Ma‘sum
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Ekhtiar, Maryam, Sheila R. Canby, Navina Haidar, and Priscilla P. Soucek, ed. Masterpieces from the Department of Islamic Art in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1st ed. ed. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2011. no. 163, pp. 237-239, ill. p. 239 (color).