Quantcast

James-Jacques-Joseph Tissot (1836–1902)

Edgar Degas (French, Paris 1834–1917 Paris)

Date:
ca. 1867–68
Medium:
Oil on canvas
Dimensions:
59 5/8 x 44 in. (151.4 x 111.8 cm)
Classification:
Paintings
Credit Line:
Rogers Fund, 1939
Accession Number:
39.161
  • Gallery Label

    The fashionable painter James Tissot was Degas’s friend and mentor in the 1860s and early 1870s. Posed in a studio, top hat and satin-lined cape by his side, Tissot is surrounded by canvases that reflect the wide-ranging tastes he shared with Degas: an exotic, Japanese-style picture; scenes of contemporary leisure; and behind the easel, a sixteenth-or-seventeenth-century Venetian subject. At center, a copy after a portrait of Frederick the Wise in the Louvre, formerly attributed to Lucas Cranach the Elder, pays homage to Northern Renaissance art.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: Stamped (lower right): Degas

  • Provenance

    the artist, Paris (until d. 1917; his estate sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, May 6–8, 1918, no. 37, as "Portrait d'homme dans un atelier de peintre," for Fr 25,700 to Hessel); [Josse Hessel, Paris, 1918–21; deposited on March 14, 1921 with Durand-Ruel, Paris; sold on April 28, 1921 to Durand-Ruel, New York]; [Durand-Ruel, New York, 1921–22, sold on April 6, 1922 for $1,400 to Lewisohn]; Adolph Lewisohn, New York (1922–d. 1938; cat., 1928, pp. 98–99, ill.); [Jacques Seligmann, New York, until 1939; sold to MMA]

  • Exhibition History

    New York. Century Association. 1931, no catalogue [see Sterling and Salinger 1967].

    Cambridge, Mass. Fogg Art Museum. "Degas: Loan Exhibition Arranged by Students," May 9–30, 1931, no. 3 (as "Portrait of Jules Finot, the Painter," lent by Adolph Lewisohn).

    New York. Marie Harriman Gallery. "Degas," November 5–December 1, 1934, no. 5 (as "Portrait of Jules Finot," lent by Mr. Adolph Lewisohn, New York City).

    Cleveland Museum of Art. "Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition," June 26–October 4, 1936, no. 268 (as "Jules Finot," lent by the Adolph Lewisohn Collection, New York).

    New York. Durand-Ruel. "Masterpieces by Degas," March 22–April 10, 1937, no. 2 (as "Portrait de Jules Finot," lent by the Adolph Lewisohn Collection).

    New York. Wildenstein & Co., Inc.. "Great Portraits from Impressionism to Modernism," March 1–29, 1938, no. 9 (as "Jules Finot," lent by the Adolph Lewisohn Collection, New York City).

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "French Painting from David to Toulouse-Lautrec," February 6–March 26, 1941, no. 34 (as "Portrait of James Tissot").

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Lewisohn Collection," November 2–December 2, 1951, no. 22 (as "James Tissot [1836–1902]").

    New York. Wildenstein. "Degas: Loan Exhibition for the Benefit of The Citizens' Committee for Children of New York, Inc.," April 7–May 7, 1960, no. 14 (as "James Tissot dans un Atelier d'Artiste").

    Providence. Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design. "James Jacques Joseph Tissot, 1836–1902: A Retrospective Exhibition," February 28–March 29, 1968, no cat. number.

    Toronto. Art Gallery of Ontario. "James Jacques Joseph Tissot, 1836–1902: A Retrospective Exhibition," April 6–May 5, 1968, no cat. number.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Portrait of the Artist," January 18–March 7, 1972, no. 22 (as "Jacques Joseph Tissot [1836–1902]").

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," September 21–November 24, 1974, no. 11 (as "Jacques [James] Tissot").

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition," December 12, 1974–February 10, 1975, no. 11 (as "Jacques Joseph [James] Tissot").

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Degas in the Metropolitan," February 26–September 4, 1977, no. 6 (of paintings).

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Degas," February 9–May 16, 1988, no. 75 (as "James Tissot").

    Ottawa. National Gallery of Canada. "Degas," June 16–August 28, 1988, no. 75 (as "James Tissot").

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Degas," September 27, 1988–January 8, 1989, no. 75 (as "James Tissot").

    Paris. Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais. "Impressionnisme: Les origines, 1859–1869," April 19–August 8, 1994, no. 62 (as "Portrait de James Tissot").

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Origins of Impressionism," September 27, 1994–January 8, 1995, no. 62 (as "Portrait de James Tissot").

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "The Private Collection of Edgar Degas," October 1, 1997–January 11, 1998, no cat. number (addendum p. 127).

    Baltimore Museum of Art. "Faces of Impressionism: Portraits from American Collections," October 10, 1999–January 30, 2000, no. 25 (as "James-Jacques-Joseph Tissot").

    Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "Faces of Impressionism: Portraits from American Collections," March 25–May 7, 2000, no. 25 (as "James-Jacques-Joseph Tissot").

    Cleveland Museum of Art. "Faces of Impressionism: Portraits from American Collections," May 28–July 30, 2000, no. 25 (as "James-Jacques-Joseph Tissot").

    Atlanta. High Museum of Art. "Degas and America: The Early Collectors," March 3–May 27, 2001, no. 22.

    Minneapolis Institute of Arts. "Degas and America: The Early Collectors," June 16–September 9, 2001, no. 22.

    New York. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting," March 4–June 8, 2003, no. 105.

    London. National Gallery. "Rebels and Martyrs: The Image of the Artist in the Nineteenth Century," June 28–August 28, 2006, no. 43.

    Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. "The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920," February 4–May 6, 2007, no. 66.

    Berlin. Neue Nationalgalerie. "Französische Meisterwerke des 19.Jahrhunderts aus dem Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York," June 1–October 7, 2007, unnumbered cat.

  • References

    "La vente Degas." La Renaissance de l'art français et des industries de luxe no. 4 (June 1918), p. 146, lists it as "Portrait de Tissot dans son atelier," sold to Hessel for Fr 25,700.

    Paul Lafond. Degas. 2, Paris, 1919, p. 15, identifies the sitter as the painter Finot, and erroneously states that it was exhibited at the 4th Impressionist exhibition of 1879.

    Henri Rivière. Les Dessins de Degas: Reproduits en fac-simile. Paris, 1922, unpaginated, under no. 4, reproduces the drawing for this painting (Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass.) as "Le peintre J.-J. Tissot".

    Royal Cortissoz. Personalities in Art. New York, 1925, ill. opp. p. 222, as "Portrait of a Man in the Studio of an Artist".

    "Lewisohn Buys Van Gogh's Famous 'Arlesienne'." Art News 24 (March 27, 1926), p. 1.

    Stephan Bourgeois. The Adolph Lewisohn Collection of Modern French Paintings and Sculptures. New York, 1928, pp. 95, 98–99, ill., calls it "Portrait of Jules Finot" and dates it 1868; identifies the portrait in the background as Albert of Saxony by Lucas Cranach.

    Edith von Térey. "Die Sammlung Adolph Lewisohn, New York." Kunst und Künstler 27 (August 1929), p. 417, ill. p. 421, calls it "Im Atelier" and identifies the sitter as Finot.

    Stephan Bourgeois and Waldemar George. "The French Paintings of the XIXth and XXth Centuries in the Adolph and Samuel Lewisohn Collection." Formes nos. 28–29 (1932), pp. 301, 304, ill. between pp. 302 and 303, as "Portrait of Jules Finot".

    James Laver. "Vulgar Society": The Romantic Career of James Tissot, 1836–1902. London, 1936, pp. 11–13, identifies the sitter as Tissot, citing the drawing now in the Fogg Art Museum and the sketches of the head (private collection); suggests that Degas "suppressed the name of his sitter because of his subsequent quarrel with Tissot".

    "Degas, Romanticist, Who 'Fell in Love With the Law of Balance'." Art Digest 11 (April 1, 1937), p. 7.

    Alfred M. Frankfurter. "Twenty Important Pictures by Degas." Art News 35 (March 27, 1937), pp. 13, 24, ill. p. 15.

    Sam A. Lewisohn. Painters and Personality: A Collector's View of Modern Art. [New York], 1937, pl. 127, calls it "Jules Finot".

    Agnes Mongan. "Degas as Seen in American Collections." Burlington Magazine 72 (June 1938), p. 296, pl. IA, as "Jules Finot".

    Agnes Mongan and Paul J. Sachs. Drawings in the Fogg Museum of Art. Cambridge, Mass., 1940, vol. 1, p. 359, under no. 668.

    John Rewald. Edgar Degas. Mulhouse, France, [194_?], fig. 21, calls it "Portrait du peintre James Tissot" and dates it 1867–70.

    R. H. Wilenski. Modern French Painters. New York, [1940], p. 52, calls it "Baron Jules Finot".

    Louise Burroughs. "A Portrait of James Tissot by Degas." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 36 (February 1941), pp. 35–38, ill. on cover, cites several drawings of Tissot by Degas which, together with Tissot's own self-portraits and photographs, "leave little doubt" that he is the subject of this picture; dates it approximately 1868 based on the drawings, the dates of the friendship between the two men, and comparisons with other Degas portraits.

    Jacques Lassaigne. Edgar Degas. Paris, 1945, ill. p. 30, dates it about 1868.

    Camille Mauclair. Edgar Degas. New York, 1945, unpaginated, ill.

    Denis Rouart. Degas à la recherche de sa technique. Paris, 1945, pp. 51, 73 n. 73 [English ed., 1988, p. 86, ill. p. 87 (color)], states that Degas retouched this picture, first rubbing parts of the canvas with copal in oil.

    P[aul]. A[ndré]. Lemoisne. Degas et son œuvre. [reprint 1984]. Paris, [1946–49], vol. 1, pp. 56, 239 n. 117; vol. 2, pp. 90–91, no. 175, ill., calls it "James Tissot dans un atelier d'artiste" and dates it 1868; notes that the three drawings in the third atelier sale were called studies for the portrait of Tissot and that the sitter in the painting resembles contemporary photographs of Tissot.

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. New York, 1946, ill. p. 155, dates it about 1868.

    Lillian Browse. Degas Dancers. New York, [1949], p. 21.

    Meyer Schapiro. Vincent van Gogh. New York, 1950, p. 44, mentions it as an example of portraits depicting figures among objects of art, such as Manet's portrait of Emile Zola (1868; Musée d'Orsay, Paris) and Van Gogh's "Père Tanguy" (1887; Musée Rodin, Paris).

    Bernard Berenson. Piero della Francesca or the Ineloquent in Art. New York, 1954, p. 36, pl. 44, calls this a portrait "reduced to mere 'genre'".

    Theodore Rousseau Jr. "A Guide to the Picture Galleries." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 12, part 2 (January 1954), p. 7, ill. p. 50.

    Jean Sutherland Boggs. "Degas Notebooks at the Bibliothèque Nationale III: Group C (1863–1886)." Burlington Magazine 100 (July 1958), p. 243, records a study for this painting in a Degas notebook she date 1866 (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Nb 22, p. 31) and mentions similar studies in another notebook dated 1866 (private collection, Paris; now Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, Nb 21, p. 6v) [see Ref. Reff 1976, Notebooks].

    Jakob Rosenberg. Great Draughtsmen from Pisanello to Picasso. Cambridge, Mass., 1959, p. 109.

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. rev., enl. ed. New York, 1961, p. 207, ill. p. 176.

    Jean Sutherland Boggs. Portraits by Degas. Berkeley, 1962, pp. 23, 32, 57, 59, 131, pl. 46, calls it "James Tissot" and dates it 1866; remarks that for Degas "portraiture was a concentration upon the individual and expressive character of the human body through which the lassitude, even the slight anxiety, of a man like Tissot could be revealed"; compares this picture to Manet's "Portrait of Emile Zola" (Musée d'Orsay, Paris).

    Theodore Reff. "Pissarro's Portrait of Cézanne." Burlington Magazine 109 (November 1967), p. 628.

    Charles Sterling and Margaretta M. Salinger. "XIX–XX Centuries." French Paintings: A Catalogue of the Collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 3, New York, 1967, pp. 62–64, ill., call it "Jacques Joseph Tissot" and identify the framed picture behind Tissot as a portrait of Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, by Cranach.

    Eugenia Parry Janis. "Tissot Retrospective." Burlington Magazine 110 (May 1968), p. 303.

    Theodore Reff. "The Pictures within Degas's Pictures." Metropolitan Museum Journal 1 (1968), pp. 125, 127, 131, 133–40, 150, 152 n. 97, pp. 161–62, 164–66, figs. 10, 11, 13, 15, 17 (overall and details), discusses the paintings in the background as completely invented yet "equally indicative of interests shared by Degas and Tissot": a copy after a Cranach portrait (Musée du Louvre, Paris), a Western depiction of Japanese women in a garden, two contemporary landscapes, one similar to Tissot's "Déjeuner sur l'Herbe" (about 1865; Private collection), and a "Finding of Moses" reminiscent of seventeenth century Venetian painting; calls these pictures assertions of the "relevance for modern art of several distinctly opposed tendencies" that convey the "ideal of sophistication and self-awareness which [Degas] has also expressed in personal terms in his image of the artist as a dandy"; notes that this picture was too early to have been included in the 1879 Impressionist exhibition [see Ref. Lafond 1919].

    Margaretta M. Salinger. "Windows Open to Nature." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 27 (Summer 1968), unpaginated, ill.

    Henri Zerner. "The Return of 'James' Tissot." Art News 67 (March 1968), p. 33, ill.

    Ronald Pickvance. Degas: Pastels and Drawings. Exh. cat., Nottingham University Art Gallery. Nottingham, 1969, unpaginated, under no. 11.

    Fiorella Minervino in L'opera completa di Degas. Milan, 1970, pp. 96–97, no. 240, ill.

    Richard Ormond. John Singer Sargent: Paintings, Drawings, Watercolors. New York, 1970, p. 20, compares it to Sargent's "Madame Ramón Subercaseaux" (1880, Señora Amalia Barros de Griffin, Santiago).

    Mark Roskill. Van Gogh, Gauguin, and the Impressionist Circle. Greenwich, Conn., 1970, p. 128, pl. 101, dates it about 1866–67 and compares it to Gauguin's "Portrait of Van Gogh Painting Sunflowers" (1888; Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam).

    Theodore Reff in From Realism to Symbolism: Whistler and His World. Exh. cat., Wildenstein. New York, 1971, p. 28, states that Degas's interest in Japanese art first appears in this picture.

    Theodore Reff. "Degas's 'Tableau de Genre'." Art Bulletin 54 (September 1972), p. 331.

    John Walsh Jr. Portrait of the Artist. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1972, p. 14, no. 22, remarks that it is uncertain if this picture represents Degas's or Tissot's studio.

    John Rewald. The History of Impressionism. 4th rev. ed. New York, 1973, p. 207, ill. p. 176.

    Edith Hoffmann. "Impressionists at the Grand Palais." Burlington Magazine 116 (November 1974), p. 699.

    Charles S. Moffett in Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1974, pp. 76–79, no. 11, ill. (color) [French ed., "Centenaire de l'impressionnisme," Éditions des musées nationaux, Paris, 1974], calls it "Jacques Joseph (James) Tissot" and dates it about 1866–68.

    Denny Carter. "A Symbolist Portrait by Edmond Aman-Jean." Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 62 (January 1975), pp. 6, 10 nn. 9, 10, fig. 8, dates it about 1866 and compares it to Aman-Jean's "Portrait of a Woman (Meditation)" (about 1891; Cleveland Museum of Art).

    Theodore Reff. Degas, The Artist's Mind. [New York], 1976, pp. 28, 90, 98, 101, 103–7, 110, 138, 140, 144–45, 223–24, 307 n. 44, p. 319 n. 177, figs. 68, 69, 71, 73, 75 (overall and details).

    Theodore Reff. The Notebooks of Edgar Degas: A Catalogue of the Thirty-Eight Notebooks in the Bibliothèque Nationale and Other Collections. Oxford, 1976, vol. 1, pp. 108 (notebook 21, p. 6v), 110–11 (notebook 22, p. 31), catalogues two studies for this picture, one a thumbnail sketch and the other a drawing of the figure's torso and right arm; illustrates both in vol. 2.

    Thomas B. Hess. "Communicating Degas." New York Magazine (March 28, 1977), p. 74.

    Theodore Reff. "Degas: A Master among Masters." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 34 (Spring 1977), p. [11], fig. 15 (color).

    Frank Whitford. Japanese Prints and Western Painters. New York, 1977, p. 150, pl. 87.

    Eduard Hüttinger. Degas. New York, 1978, p. 41, ill. p. 16 (color).

    Michael Justin Wentworth Minneapolis Institute of Arts. James Tissot: Catalogue Raisonné of his Prints. Minneapolis, 1978, p. 48, under no. 5, fig. 5a, compares the composition to Tissot's "Portrait of Mlle L.L." (1864; Musée d'Orsay) and the sitter's pose to his "Marguerite à l'église" (about 1861; National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin).

    Ian Dunlop. Degas. New York, 1979, p. 57, pl. 51, dates it 1866–68 in the text and 1868 in the caption.

    Charles S. Moffett. Degas: Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1979, pp. 7–8, colorpl. 9, dates it 1866–68.

    Ian Thomson. "Tissot and Oxford." Oxford Art Journal 2 (April 1979), pp. 54–55.

    Christopher Lloyd and Anne Distel in Pissarro. Exh. cat., Hayward Gallery. London, 1980, p. 104, under no. 38.

    T[heodore]. R[eff]. in Gabriel P. Weisberg. The Realist Tradition: French Painting and Drawing, 1830–1900. Exh. cat., Cleveland Museum of Art. Cleveland, 1980, p. 175, under no. 149.

    Jacques Dufwa. Winds from the East: A Study in the Art of Manet, Degas, Monet and Whistler 1856–86. Stockholm, 1981, pp. 89–95, 104, 115, 187, 203 nn. 22, 26, fig. 70, asserts that the cutting and overlapping of the pictures within this painting borrow from the asymmetrical perspectives found in Japanese art; interprets these pictures as references to the creativity of the artist and finds similarities to the Japanese "use of chance to show how the theme appears to our eyes at a given moment".

    Eugénie de Keyser. Degas: Réalité et métaphore. Louvain-la-Neuve, 1981, pp. 50, 104.

    Susan Koslow. "Two Sources for Vincent van Gogh's 'Portrait of Armand Roulin': A Character Likeness and a Portrait Schema." Arts Magazine 56 (September 1981), pp. 159, 163 n. 36, fig. 4, calls the copy of a Cranach portrait within this picture a symbolic and literal father figure for Tissot and Degas.

    Bogomila Welsh-Ovcharov. Vincent van Gogh and the Birth of Cloisonism. Exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario. Toronto, 1981, p. 110, under no. 8.

    Keith Roberts. Degas. rev., enl. ed. [1st ed., 1976]. Oxford, 1982, unpaginated, colorpl. 7, dates it 1868.

    Krystyna Matyjaszkiewicz in James Tissot. Exh. cat., Barbican Art Gallery Gallery, London. Oxford, 1984, p. 100, mentions that the picture depicted on the easel at the right of this work is similar to Tissot's "Dejeuner sur l'herbe" (cat. no. 15, Goldschmidt collection) [see also Ref. Reff 1968].

    Roy McMullen. Degas: His Life, Times, and Work. Boston, 1984, pp. 134, 145.

    Charles F. Stuckey in Degas: Form and Space. Exh. cat., Centre Culturel du Marais. Paris, 1984, pp. 20, 60 n. 38, fig. 67 (color).

    Michael Wentworth. James Tissot. Oxford, 1984, pp. 49, 59, pl. 37, compares it to Tissot's "Self-Portrait" (about 1865; California Palace of the Legion of Honor, San Francisco).

    Michael Wentworth in James Tissot. Exh. cat., Barbican Art Gallery, London. Oxford, 1984, pp. 12–14, 16–17, 94 n. 2, under no. 2, fig. 1, describes this picture as a series of paradoxes, portraying "Tissot's public pose as a dandy and boulevardier" while allowing a "glimpse beneath the surface to the troubled world of anxieties and contradictions that marked the man himself and formed the basis of his art".

    Charles S. Moffett. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1985, pp. 56, 58–59, 250, ill. in color (overall and detail).

    Richard Thomson in "Notes on Degas's Sense of Humour." Degas 1834–1984. Manchester, 1985, p. 10, dates it about 1866–68; notes that Degas changed the sitter's pose from the preparatory drawing (Fogg Art Museum) in order to better reveal Tissot's character.

    Melissa McQuillan. Impressionist Portraits. London, 1986, pp. 60–61, ill. (color).

    Richard Thomson. The Private Degas. Exh. cat., Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester. London, 1987, pp. 26–27, fig. 23.

    Eunice Lipton. "Anxiety at the Met." Artforum 27 (October 1988), p. 102, ill., calls it "James Tissot in an Artist's Studio".

    Henri Loyrette in Degas. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris. New York, 1988, pp. 105, 112, 124, 128, 130–32, 142, no. 75, ill. (color), calls it "James Tissot" and dates it 1867–68; asserts that the setting is not any particular artist's studio, interpreting the pictures within the picture as references to Tissot's eclectic artistic production; finds similarities between the figure of Pharaoh's daughter in the Finding of Moses canvas and the title figure in Degas's "Mlle Fiocre in the Ballet 'La Source'" (1867–68; Brooklyn Museum, New York); considers the stern visage of Frederick the Wise in the Cranach copy to represent a warning to Tissot about the precariousness of becoming a fashionable artist.

    John Milner. The Studios of Paris: The Capital of Art in the Late Nineteenth Century. New Haven, 1988, p. 33, pl. 35.

    Michael Pantazzi in Degas. Exh. cat., Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Paris. New York, 1988, pp. 249, 263.

    Barbara Scott. "The Triumph of Degas." Apollo 127 (April 1988), p. 282.

    "Lettres de Degas provenant de fonds divers." Degas inédit. Paris, 1989, p. 357.

    Henri Loyrette. "Degas entre Gustave Moreau et Duranty. Notes sur les portraits 1859–1876." Revue de l'art no. 86 (1989), pp. 20, 22–23, fig. 16.

    Carol Armstrong. Odd Man Out: Readings of the Work and Reputation of Edgar Degas. Chicago, 1991, pp. 103–4, 140, fig. 50.

    Patrick Bade. Degas. London, 1991, pp. 62–63, ill. (color), calls it "James Tissot in an Artist's Studio".

    Henri Loyrette. Degas. Paris, 1991, pp. 187, 205, 216, 220, ill.

    Anne Higonnet. Berthe Morisot's Images of Women. Cambridge, Mass., 1992, pp. 125–27, 292, fig. 42, calls it "Portrait of the Painter James Tissot" and dates it 1868.

    Henri Loyrette. Degas: The Man and His Art. New York, 1993, pp. 38–39, ill. (color detail).

    Jean Sutherland Boggs in Degas Portraits. Exh. cat., Kunsthaus Zürich. London, 1994, p. 24.

    Marianne Karabelnik in Degas Portraits. Exh. cat., Kunsthaus Zürich. London, 1994, p. 255.

    Henri Loyrette in Origins of Impressionism. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1994, pp. 204, 222–23, 296, 370–72, 374–75, 463, no. 62, fig. 227 (color) and ill. pp. 182 (color detail), 374 (overall) [French ed., Paris, 1994, pp. 203, 219, 222–23, 296, 369–70, 373, 461, fig. 277 (color), ill. pp. 182, 373].

    Emil Maurer in Degas Portraits. Exh. cat., Kunsthaus Zürich. London, 1994, pp. 100, 106, ill. p. 107, notes that Degas's implicit criticism of his sitter is "discernible only at a second glance".

    Barbara Stern Shapiro in Degas Portraits. Exh. cat., Kunsthaus Zürich. London, 1994, p. 141.

    Colta Ives in The Private Collection of Edgar Degas. Exh. cat., The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 1997, pp. 248–49, fig. 333 (color), notes that the Japanese themed picture within this painting is similar to the type painted by Tissot.

    Linda Nochlin in Colin B. Bailey. Renoir's Portraits: Impressions of an Age. Exh. cat., National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa. New Haven, 1997, pp. 60–62, 100, 271 n. 15, compares it to Renoir's "Frédéric Bazille Painting 'The Heron'" (1867; Musée d'Orsay, Paris).

    Carol Vogel. "Inside Art: Tracing Degas's Taste." New York Times (February 21, 1997), p. C21, ill. (detail).

    Dianne W. Pitman. Bazille: Purity, Pose, and Painting in the 1860s. University Park, 1998, pp. 145, 156, fig. 92.

    John House in Sona Johnston. Faces of Impressionism: Portraits from American Collections. Exh. cat., Baltimore Museum of Art. New York, 1999, pp. 12, 19.

    Sona Johnston and Susan Bollendorf in Faces of Impressionism: Portraits from American Collections. Exh. cat., Baltimore Museum of Art. New York, 1999, p. 88, no. 25, ill. in color, frontispiece and p. 89 (detail and overall), date it about 1866–68.

    Important 19th Century European Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture. Sotheby's, New York. November 3, 1999, p. 136, fig. 1.

    David A. Brenneman in Degas and America: The Early Collectors. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art. Atlanta, 2000, p. 57, ill. p. 47 (color detail).

    Frances Fowle in Degas and America: The Early Collectors. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art. Atlanta, 2000, p. 124.

    Claire I. R. O'Mahony in Degas and America: The Early Collectors. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art. Atlanta, 2000, pp. 126–27, no. 22, ill. (color), dates it about 1867–68.

    Phaedra Siebert in Degas and America: The Early Collectors. Exh. cat., High Museum of Art. Atlanta, 2000, p. 249.

    Petra Buschhoff-Leineweber in Edouard Manet und die Impressionisten. Exh. cat., Staatsgalerie Stuttgart. Stuttgart, 2002, pp. 167–68, 177 n. 72, fig. 201.

    Sylvie Patry in Berthe Morisot, 1841–1895. Exh. cat., Palais des Beaux-Arts de Lille. Martigny, 2002, p. 29, fig. 6.

    Gary Tinterow in Gary Tinterow and Geneviève Lacambre. Manet/Velázquez: The French Taste for Spanish Painting. Exh. cat., Musée d'Orsay, Paris. New York, 2003, pp. 56, 474–75, no. 105, fig. 1.59 (color) and ill. p. 474, asserts that this picture depicts Tissot's studio, noting that the Japanese themed canvas and the one on the easel have been recently identified as works by Tissot; suggests that Tissot also painted the copy of the Cranach portrait; compares the composition and the sense of having captured the artist pausing for a single moment with Velázquez's "Las Meninas" (1656; Museo del Prado, Madrid).

    Fiorella Minervino in Degas: Classico e moderno. Exh. cat., Complesso del Vittoriano, Rome. Milan, 2004, p. 60, fig. 6.

    Vanessa Gavioli in Degas. English ed. [1st ed., Milan, 2003]. New York, 2005, pp. 82–83, 180, ill. (color and black and white).

    Gary Tinterow and Asher Ethan Miller in The Wrightsman Pictures. New York, 2005, p. 400.

    Alexander Sturgis in Rebels and Martyrs: The Image of the Artist in the Nineteenth Century. Exh. cat., National Gallery. London, 2006, pp. 126–27, no. 43, ill. (color), remarks that none of the pictures within the painting are by Tissot and notes that each historical picture is "paired with its 'modern' equivalent—the final pairing being between the Cranach and Degas's portrait itself".

    Jill DeVonyar and Richard Kendall. Degas and the Art of Japan. Exh. cat., Reading Public Museum. Reading, Pa., 2007, pp. 16, 99 n. 40, fig. 11 (color), compare the large horizontal canvas in the background to Utamaro's woodblock print triptych "The Cultivation of Brocade Prints, A Famous Product of Edo".

    Gary Tinterow in The Masterpieces of French Painting from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: 1800–1920. Exh. cat., Museum of Fine Arts, Houston. New York, 2007, pp. 96–97, 206–7, no. 66, ill. (color and black and white) and fig. 12 (installation photo).

    Masterpieces of European Painting, 1800–1920, in The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, 2007, pp. 110–11, 240, no. 100, ill. (color and black and white) and fig. 12 (installation photo).



  • Notes

    At one time, the sitter was identified as the artist Jules Finot, but several drawing studies confirm this picture to be a portrait of Degas's friend, the painter James Tissot. Three of the drawings were included in Degas's third atelier sale: two figure studies (Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Mass.; private collection, Paris) and one sheet with two studies of the head (private collection). The Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, owns two notebooks containing a thumbnail sketch of the composition and a study of the torso and right arm (Nb21, p. 6v; Nb22, p. 31).

    The small picture on the wall behind Tissot is one of numerous portraits of Cranach of Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony. For tentative identifications of the other pictures, see Ref. Reff 1968.

  • See also
436144

Close