"Four Portraits: (upper left) A Raja (Perhaps Raja Sarang Rao), by Balchand; (upper right) 'Inayat Khan, by Daulat; (lower left) 'Abd al-Khaliq, probably by Balchand; (lower right) Jamal Khan Qaravul, by Murad", Folio from the Shah Jahan Album

Painting by Balachand (active 1595–ca. 1650)

Painting by Daulat (active ca. 1595–1635)
Painting by Murad
Object Name:
Album leaf
recto: ca. 1610–15; verso: ca. 1541
Ink, opaque watercolor, and gold on paper
Overall page: Ht. 15 3/16 in. (38.6 cm) W. 10 3/16 in. (25.9 cm) Painting inside border: Ht. 11 1/2 in. (29.2 cm) W. 8 7/8 in. (22.5 cm) All four portraits: Ht. 10 7/8 in. (27.6 cm) W. 5 3/16 in. (13.2 cm) Portrait (top left): Ht. 5 5/16 in. (13.5 cm) W. 2 1/2 in. (6.4 cm) Portrait (top right): Ht. 5 5/8 in. (14.3 cm) W. 2 1/2 in. (6.4 cm) Portrait (bottom left): Ht. 4 1/2 in. (11.4 cm) W. 2 1/4 in. (5.7 cm) Portrait (bottom right): Ht. 4 7/16 in. (11.3 cm) W. 2 1/2 in. (6.4 cm)
Credit Line:
Purchase, Rogers Fund and The Kevorkian Foundation Gift, 1955
Accession Number:
  • Description

    These portraits were made for Jahangir (r. 1605–27), whose painters, while technically flawless, were able to reveal the nuances of characterization. 'Inayat Khan, a favorite courtier, is remembered today from two portraits made as he lay at death’s door, emaciated from his addiction to opium and wine, though here he appears healthy. 'Abd al-Khaliq met his death after siding with Shah Jahan against his father. Jamal Khan Qaravul was a minor nobleman, and the identification of the raja, in Jahangir’s handwriting, is illegible.

  • Signatures, Inscriptions, and Markings

    Inscription: recto:
    In Persian (in Jahangir's hand) below upper left portrait: "Portrait of Raja..."
    In Persian (in Shah Jahan's hand) below upper left portrait: "Work of Balchand"
    In Persian, below upper right portrait: "Portrait of Inayat Khan, work of Daulat"
    In Persian, along right edge of lower left portrait: "Portrait of Abd al-Khaliq, work of Naroyam (?)"
    In Persian (in Jahangir's hand) above lower right portrait: "Portrait of Jamal Khan, Karawal (the huntsman), work of Murad" verso:
    In Persian, in three vertical panels: "The humble sinner the despicable 'Ali the scribe. Allah forgive him his sins and cancel his faults! In the last days of the Blessed Muharram year 928 (December A.D. 1521)"
    In Persian, at the end of calligraphy: "The slave wrote it"

    Marking: recto:
    Margin number '12' is inscribed in the gilt margin.

  • Provenance

    Jack S. Rofe, Scotland (in 1929; sale, Sotheby's London,December 12, 1929, to Kevorkian); [ Hagop Kevorkian, New York, from 1929]; [ Kevorkian Foundation, New York, until 1955; gift and sale to MMA]

  • See also
    In the Museum
    Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History