Owls of a type that can still be seen flitting about the Akropolis of Athens were associated with Athena, whose sanctuary was on top of that high rocky plateau. For centuries, the principle coinage of Athens showed the head of Athena on one side and an owl on the other. Here the goddess stands relaxed, ready to let the bird fly.
Alexander, Christine. 1950. "A Marble Lekythos and the Elgin Athena." Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 9.2: p. 59.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1950. Small Sculptures in Bronze: A Picture Book. p. 19, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Alexander, Christine. 1950. "A Marble Lekythos and the Elgin Athena." Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 9(2): p. 59.
Richter, Gisela M. A. 1953. Handbook of the Greek Collection. pp. 81, 221, pl. 61, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Richter, Gisela M. A. 1970. "The Department of Greek and Roman Art: Triumphs and Tribulations." Metropolitan Museum Journal, 3: pp. 83, 87, fig. 27.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1970. Masterpieces of Fifty Centuries. New York: Dutton.
von Bothmer, Dietrich. 1978. Antichnoe iskusstvo iz muzeia Metropoliten, Soedinennye Shtaty Ameriki: Katalog vystavki. no. 42, pl. 8, Moscow: Sovetskii Khudozhnik.